- 1 Create a local user or administrator account in Windows 10
- 2 Администрирование в Windows 10 Administrative Tools in Windows 10
- 3 Create mandatory user profiles
- 4 Profile extension for each Windows version
- 5 Mandatory user profile
- 6 Apply a mandatory user profile to users
- 7 Apply policies to improve sign-in time
Create a local user or administrator account in Windows 10
Create a local user account for a child or someone else who doesn’t have a Microsoft account. If needed, you can give that account administrator permissions. An offline account is just another term for a local account.
As you create an account, remember that choosing a password and keeping it safe are essential steps. Because we don’t know your password, if you forget it or lose it, we cannot recover it for you.
If you’re using Windows 10, version 1803 and later, you can add security questions, as you’ll see in step 4 under Create a local user account. With answers to your security questions, you can reset your Windows 10 local account password.
Create a local user account
1. Select Start > Settings > Accounts and then select Family & other users. (In some editions of Windows you’ll see Other users.)
2. Select Add someone else to this PC.
3. Select I don’t have this person’s sign-in information, and on the next page, select Add a user without a Microsoft account.
4. Enter a user name, password, password hint or choose security questions, and then select Next.
Change a local user account to an administrator account
1. Select Start > Settings > Accounts , and then, under Family & other users, select the account owner name, then select Change account type.
2. Under Account type, select Administrator, and then select OK.
3. Sign in with the new administrator account.
Администрирование в Windows 10 Administrative Tools in Windows 10
Область применения Applies to
«Администрирование»— это папка на панели управления, которая содержит средства для системных администраторов и опытных пользователей. Administrative Tools is a folder in Control Panel that contains tools for system administrators and advanced users.
Средства в этой папке зависят от выпуска Windows. The tools in the folder might vary depending on which edition of Windows you are using.
Эти средства были включены в предыдущие версии Windows. These tools were included in previous versions of Windows. Соответствующая документация по каждому средству поможет вам использовать эти средства в Windows10. The associated documentation for each tool should help you use these tools in Windows10. В списке ниже приведены ссылки на документацию по каждому средству. The following list provides links to documentation for each tool. Эти инструменты находятся в папке C:\Windows\System32\ или ее вложенных папках. The tools are located within the folder C:\Windows\System32\ or its subfolders.
Если при переходе по ссылке вы не нашли необходимые для использования того или иного средства сведения, отправьте нам комментарий с помощью функции Была ли эта страница вам полезна? на этой странице Администрирование в Windows 10. If the content that is linked to a tool in the following list doesn’t provide the information you need to use that tool, send us a comment by using the Was this page helpful? feature on this Administrative Tools in Windows 10 page. Информация о том, какие сведения необходимы для использования того или иного средства, поможет нам планировать будущие материалы. Details about the information you want for a tool will help us plan future content.
Create mandatory user profiles
A mandatory user profile is a roaming user profile that has been pre-configured by an administrator to specify settings for users. Settings commonly defined in a mandatory profile include (but are not limited to): icons that appear on the desktop, desktop backgrounds, user preferences in Control Panel, printer selections, and more. Configuration changes made during a user’s session that are normally saved to a roaming user profile are not saved when a mandatory user profile is assigned.
Mandatory user profiles are useful when standardization is important, such as on a kiosk device or in educational settings. Only system administrators can make changes to mandatory user profiles.
When the server that stores the mandatory profile is unavailable, such as when the user is not connected to the corporate network, users with mandatory profiles can sign in with the locally cached copy of the mandatory profile, if one exists. Otherwise, the user will be signed in with a temporary profile.
User profiles become mandatory profiles when the administrator renames the NTuser.dat file (the registry hive) of each user’s profile in the file system of the profile server from NTuser.dat to NTuser.man . The .man extension causes the user profile to be a read-only profile.
Profile extension for each Windows version
The name of the folder in which you store the mandatory profile must use the correct extension for the operating system it will be applied to. The following table lists the correct extension for each operating system version.
|Client operating system version||Server operating system version||Profile extension|
|Windows XP||Windows Server 2003 Windows Server 2003 R2||none|
|Windows Vista Windows 7||Windows Server 2008 Windows Server 2008 R2||v2|
|Windows 8||Windows Server 2012||v3|
|Windows 8.1||Windows Server 2012 R2||v4|
|Windows 10, versions 1507 and 1511||N/A||v5|
|Windows 10, versions 1607, 1703, 1709, 1803, 1809, 1903 and 1909||Windows Server 2016 and Windows Server 2019||v6|
Mandatory user profile
First, you create a default user profile with the customizations that you want, run Sysprep with CopyProfile set to True in the answer file, copy the customized default user profile to a network share, and then you rename the profile to make it mandatory.
How to create a default user profile
Sign in to a computer running Windows 10 as a member of the local Administrator group. Do not use a domain account.
Use a lab or extra computer running a clean installation of Windows 10 to create a default user profile. Do not use a computer that is required for business (that is, a production computer). This process removes all domain accounts from the computer, including user profile folders.
Configure the computer settings that you want to include in the user profile. For example, you can configure settings for the desktop background, uninstall default apps, install line-of-business apps, and so on.
Unlike previous versions of Windows, you cannot apply a Start and taskbar layout using a mandatory profile. For alternative methods for customizing the Start menu and taskbar, see Related topics.
Create an answer file (Unattend.xml) that sets the CopyProfile parameter to True. The CopyProfile parameter causes Sysprep to copy the currently signed-on userвЂ™s profile folder to the default user profile. You can use Windows System Image Manager, which is part of the Windows Assessment and Deployment Kit (ADK) to create the Unattend.xml file.
Uninstall any application you do not need or want from the PC. For examples on how to uninstall Windows 10 Application see Remove-AppxProvisionedPackage. For a list of uninstallable applications, see Understand the different apps included in Windows 10.
It is highly recommended to uninstall unwanted or unneeded apps as it will speed up user sign-in times.
At a command prompt, type the following command and press ENTER.
(Sysprep.exe is located at: C:\Windows\System32\sysprep. By default, Sysprep looks for unattend.xml in this same folder.)
If you receive an error message that says «Sysprep was not able to validate your Windows installation», open %WINDIR%\System32\Sysprep\Panther\setupact.log and look for an entry like the following:
Use the Remove-AppxProvisionedPackage and Remove-AppxPackage -AllUsers cmdlet in Windows PowerShell to uninstall the app that is listed in the log.
The sysprep process reboots the PC and starts at the first-run experience screen. Complete the set up, and then sign in to the computer using an account that has local administrator privileges.
Right-click Start, go to Control Panel (view by large or small icons) > System > Advanced system settings, and click Settings in the User Profiles section.
In User Profiles, click Default Profile, and then click Copy To.
In Copy To, under Permitted to use, click Change.
In Select User or Group, in the Enter the object name to select field, type everyone , click Check Names, and then click OK.
In Copy To, in the Copy profile to field, enter the path and folder name where you want to store the mandatory profile. The folder name must use the correct extension for the operating system version. For example, the folder name must end with «.v6» to identify it as a user profile folder for Windows 10, version 1607.
- If the device is joined to the domain and you are signed in with an account that has permissions to write to a shared folder on the network, you can enter the shared folder path.
- If the device is not joined to the domain, you can save the profile locally and then copy it to the shared folder location.
Click OK to copy the default user profile.
How to make the user profile mandatory
In File Explorer, open the folder where you stored the copy of the profile.
If the folder is not displayed, click View > Options > Change folder and search options. On the View tab, select Show hidden files and folders, clear Hide protected operating system files, click Yes to confirm that you want to show operating system files, and then click OK to save your changes.
Rename Ntuser.dat to Ntuser.man .
Apply a mandatory user profile to users
In a domain, you modify properties for the user account to point to the mandatory profile in a shared folder residing on the server.
How to apply a mandatory user profile to users
Open Active Directory Users and Computers (dsa.msc).
Navigate to the user account that you will assign the mandatory profile to.
Right-click the user name and open Properties.
On the Profile tab, in the Profile path field, enter the path to the shared folder without the extension. For example, if the folder name is \\server\profile.v6, you would enter \\server\profile.
It may take some time for this change to replicate to all domain controllers.
Apply policies to improve sign-in time
When a user is configured with a mandatory profile, Windows 10 starts as though it was the first sign-in each time the user signs in. To improve sign-in performance for users with mandatory user profiles, apply the Group Policy settings shown in the following table. (The table shows which operating system versions each policy setting can apply to.)
|Group Policy setting||Windows 10||Windows Server 2016||Windows 8.1||Windows Server 2012|
|Computer Configuration > Administrative Templates > System > Logon > Show first sign-in animation = Disabled|
|Computer Configuration > Administrative Templates > Windows Components > Search > Allow Cortana = Disabled|
|Computer Configuration > Administrative Templates > Windows Components > Cloud Content > Turn off Microsoft consumer experience = Enabled|
The Group Policy settings above can be applied in Windows 10 Professional edition.