Как не уча сдать экзамен по билетам если

Как не уча сдать экзамен по билетам если

Содержание

Шпорные моменты: как быть, если знаний нет, а сдать экзамен нужно

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Списывание на экзамене старо как мир. Каких только способов подсмотреть нужную формулу или правило, а то и вовсе вытащить готовый ответ за это время не придумано! Никто не спорит – знания в голове ничто не заменит, но изобретательность некоторых учащихся заслуживает высшего балла. И поэтому не будем слишком строги к тем из них, кто проявил недостаточно усердия во время учебы и слабо подготовился к итоговому испытанию, однако проявил недюжинную выдумку, запасаясь «шпорами».

Давайте лучше посмотрим, как это бывает (возможно, кому-то это даже поможет не завалить экзамен). Кстати, экзаменаторы не отстают от своих подопечных по части креатива.

1. Без 3D-очков и не расшифровать, что написано

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imgur

2. Когда в класс разрешено проносить напитки

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stmichael/wikimedia commons

3. Как бы в куртке и как бы нет

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brightredlipstick/imgur

Этому парню удалось разработать почти надежную систему: кажется, что его рука лежит на столе, а на самом деле держит мобильный телефон.

4. Такая обувь на экзамене не помешала бы никому

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version365/reddit

5. Зачем на самом деле нужны часы

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toniovandope/twitter

Как вы уже поняли, не для того, чтобы понять, сколько времени вам осталось на выполнение задания, а вот для этого...

6. Какие полезные кеды! Вопрос в том, останутся ли они незамеченными

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imgur

7. Калькулятор не всегда разрешен на экзаменах

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matthewsabia/imgur

Но когда это так, вы должны этим воспользоваться. Телефоны, открытки, стикеры — все можно спрятать.

8. Ручка с тайником

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abf/wikimediacommons

9. На экзамене так хочется пить от волнения! А тут двойная польза!

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gizmopod/pinterest

10. Преимущество длинных ногтей

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Fatos Desconhecidos/facebook

11. Многофункциональная куртка

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Cihan University Students/Facebook

12. Ручка-выручалочка

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Cihan University Students/Facebook

13. Любимый нейл-арт школьниц

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Cihan University Students/Facebook

14. Достаточно клочка бумаги и расстегнутого рукава

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Online bulgem/facebook

15. Патч, скрывающий решение

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dalimkh/imgur

16. А если еще и наклейку часы прилепить сверху – вообще супер!

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Pikabu / @ArtZUZU

17. Если хочешь что-то хорошо спрятать – положи это на видное место

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Pikabu / @JBorman

18. Отлично подготовилась!

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Pikabu / @stereogirl

19. Как вариант

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Pikabu

20. Незаметненько так...

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Pikabu

21. Мама плохому не научит

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Pikabu / @Nevrial

22. Хитро!

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Pikabu / @Diprais

23. В ход идут даже крекеры

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Pikabu / @Ruti

24. Текстовое сообщение в 50-х

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Pikabu / @VimdeConst

25. И никаких проблем со списыванием!

Pikabu / @dedatolia

26. Если по-другому никак

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Pikabu / @AxelDe

27. Под неусыпным надзором

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28. Самое то для экзамена

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Pikabu / @homerchick

29. Сдал на отлично!

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Pikabu / @Makhmud

Нашел в шкафу цанговый карандаш-шпаргалку, с которым сдавал экзамен по геометрии за 8 класс в 1988 году.

Ночью перед экзаменом понял, что нифига не помню формулы площадей фигур.

Нацарапал иголкой на гранях.

Во время экзамена просто потер пальцем карандаш — и вот они!

Сдал на отлично и ушел в горный техникум.

30. Пусть попробуют найдут!

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31. Всего лишь коробка сока – что с нее взять…

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Pikabu / @Eqiulibr

Идея состояла в том, чтобы в коробку из-под сока 0,5 л запихнуть пачку распечатанных шпор.

Для этого купил пачку сока 0,5 (долго искал по магазинам), аккуратно вырезал заднюю стенку полностью, чтобы потом у задней "дверки" был свободный ход. Левую сторону дверки приклеил обратно на скотч, на правую сторону приклеил маленький неодимный магнит. Магнит совершенно не хотел клеиться на дверку суперклеем, поэтому я пошел на хитрость: снял этикетку с деревянной лопатки и закрепил магнит между этикеткой и дверкой. На фото справа на дверке видно этикетку явно не от пачки с соком.

На саму коробку внутри я приклеил согнутую пополам шайбочку (на фото тоже видно). В случае шухера на экзамене дверка легким движением захлопывалась на магнит с шайбочкой. Плюсом того, что магнит пришлось клеить на этикетку, стало то, что при захлопывании не было металлического щелчка.

Дома в ходе испытаний выяснилось, что листать шпоры в пачке сока неудобно. Поэтому бумажные шпоры были заменены на смартфон, в котором ответы на вопросы в ходе экзамена просто гуглились.

В ходе экзамена списать таким способом удалось ответы на все три вопроса. Но когда сел отвечать, члены комиссии решили не спрашивать по билету, а сразу начали гонять по дополнительным вопросам. Сдал на 4.

32. Советы бывалого

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Pikabu / @ProkaznikShow

33. Если никак, но очень надо

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Pikabu / @InfernalKlaus

34. Готовьтесь по шпаргалкам!

Сел я однажды писать шпаргалку — по какому предмету, уже не помню, то ли ТАУ, то ли АСУТП. Конспект жирный, инфы много, воды еще больше. Решил для начала выписать самую суть на черновик, а с него уже делать шпору. Пока добирался до сути, несколько раз перечитал конспект, половину запомнил. Потом посмотрел на два исписанных листа бумаги... А че тут учить?! Взял и выучил – именно эту суть конспекта :) И сдал на отлично!

Студенты, готовьтесь к сессии по шпаргалкам!

Pikabu / @NOJIKNH

35. Не пойман – не вор

А вот мне мой препод на последних курсах учебы всегда ставила автомат за экзамены;) А все из-за того, что вела она у нас с первого и до последнего курса, всегда знала, что я списывала, потому что предметы ее я не особо понимала и она это видела, но за руку так и не удалось поймать. А вариаций шпор было тьма: и на спинку стула впереди сидящего клеила, и даже на спину (садилась за девушкой с длинными волосами, и она ими прикрывала листик, когда препод проходила мимо нас), и бомбы делала, и гугл выручал не раз... Вроде, ничего особенного, но умудрилась не спалиться ни разу. Ни в школе, ни в колледже.

Pikabu / @AlyGr

36. Ибо нефиг

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Pikabu / @kakobyak

Кто-то жалеет школьничков, дескать, выглядят идиотами. Другие хвалят рациональную мысль китайских педагогов.

news.asiaone.com

37. Когда профессор заявил, что у тебя может быть только односторонняя шпаргалка, а твоя специализация — математика

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Pikabu / @YaZoV

38. Всем бы по такой ручке!

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39. А сам не плошай!

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40. К такому они не были готовы

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Pikabu / @RolandDeschain71

В Индии служба в армии необязательна, но считается весьма почетной. Поэтому каждый набор новобранцев в вооруженные силы проходит с большим количеством претендентов, желающих послужить родине. Во время одного из отборов, который состоялся в конце февраля этого года, на письменный экзамен пришло более 1000 кандидатов. Поскольку осмотр каждого из них на наличие шпаргалок занял бы слишком много времени, организаторы попросили испытуемых раздеться до нижнего белья. В таком виде будущие солдаты пробыли до конца тестирования.

С сайта warspot.

41. Шпора на халате

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Главное правило зачётной книжки никто не отменял

«Сначала студент работает на зачётку, потом зачётка работает на студента». Первокурсникам тяжело поверить в то, что зачётка будет работать на них в последние несколько лет обучения, но эта истина подтверждена не один раз. Почти все преподаватели обращают внимание на успеваемость по другим дисциплинам и на прошлых курсах, эта информация прямо влияет на результат экзамена. Это же касается и текущих оценок по предмету. Если журнал украшают двойки и прогулы, то получить хороший балл на экзамене будет непросто.

как сдать экзамен если ничего не знаешь

Старшекурсники знают, как хорошо сдать экзамен – просто нужно быть владельцем «красивой» зачётки. Но есть и небольшая хитрость для тех, у кого зачётная книжка - не повод для гордости. Просто закрепите первые листочки зачётки с помощью скрепки, чтобы преподавателю было неудобно листать её.

Экзамен «автоматом»

Такой способ сдачи экзаменов придется по душе ответственным и старательным студентам. Все знают: чтобы получить «автомат», нужно регулярно посещать лекции и практические занятия, участвовать в олимпиадах и конференциях по предмету, быть активным на уроках и иметь хорошие текущие оценки. Такого студента преподаватель обязательно заметит на протяжении семестра и выставит оценки в зачётку без дополнительной проверки знаний.

как хорошо сдать экзамен

Но, как ни крути, этот способ сдачи экзаменов сложный и требует массы усилий. Нас же, наоборот, интересует, как сдать экзамен, если ничего не знаешь и не хочешь учить.

Шпаргалки обязательны!

Также важно вовремя себя спросить: сдам ли я экзамен? Если до «судного» дня остаётся ещё немного времени, то нужно срочно приступать к написанию шпаргалок. Сможете ли вы воспользоваться ими – это уже совсем другой вопрос, но приготовить их обязательно нужно.

Важно не просто скачать с Интернета готовые шпоры, распечатать их и вырезать, а сделать их самостоятельно. Написание записок с подсказками подразумевает чтение, выбор материала и непроизвольное запоминание информации, с которой вы работаете. После этого во время экзамена вам проще будет ориентироваться в тех шпаргалках, которые вы сами составили. Если преподаватель настолько строго контролирует обстановку в аудитории, что списать становится нереально, — поможет память. Гораздо легче вспомнить то, что вы совсем недавно самостоятельно писали на шпаргалку.

сдать экзамен егэ

Помните, что списывать – это рискованное занятие, и важно знать, сколько раз можно сдавать экзамен конкретно у этого преподавателя. Подумайте, позволят ли вам прийти на пересдачу, если обман будет раскрыт.

Используем современные достижения науки и техники

В советском фильме показывали, как для успешной сдачи экзаменов студенты использовали наушники и радиопередатчик. Современным ученикам в этом плане намного проще. Мобильные телефоны, смартфоны, планшеты, диктофоны намного компактней советской радиоаппаратуры, а связь с Интернетом даёт неограниченный доступ к любой информации. Многие выбирают такой способ, чтобы, ничего не зная по предмету, сдать экзамен. ЕГЭ, скорей всего, не получится осилить, используя гаджеты, ведь там очень строгие проверки наличия телефонов и прочих технических приспособлений, но они вполне могут спасти ситуацию на экзаменах в вузах.

Спасёт хорошая репутация

Как хорошо сдать экзамен, не прилагая особых усилий к изучению предмета, а пользуясь только харизмой и хорошим авторитетом? Задуматься о том, что вам предстоит сдавать экзамен, нужно заранее и с первого знакомства с преподавателем начинать создавать о себе хорошее впечатление.

сдам ли я экзамен

Это может быть участие в самодеятельности, помощь в организации субботников, написание статей в студенческую газету. Также нужно создавать впечатление любознательного ученика. Почаще задавайте на лекциях вопросы и делитесь информацией, которую вы услышали из телепрограмм и прочитали в журналах, если она касается темы урока. Можно также интересоваться научными трудами преподавателя и его диссертациями.

Как вести себя на экзамене

Итак, наступает день сдачи. Как сдать экзамен, если ничего не знаешь? Важно следовать правилам поведения, которые помогут получить хорошие баллы за сомнительные знания:

  • Ведите себя уверенно, не выдавайте отсутствие знаний своим внешним видом.
  • Заходите в аудиторию в первой пятёрке. В таком случае, когда вы будете теряться в ответе, можно это будет аргументировать волнением.
  • Говорите, не останавливаясь, используйте вводные слова и конструкции, если не знаете точного ответа, постарайтесь плавно перевести тему на знакомый вам вопрос.
  • Проявляйте заинтересованность при ответе, приводите примеры из личного опыта, телепередач или фильмов.
  • Боритесь до конца, даже если преподаватель хочет поставить неуд. Просите дополнительные вопросы, поплачьте, давите на жалость, списывайте всё на плохое самочувствие или волнение.

сколько раз можно сдавать экзамен

Крайние меры

Если, несмотря на все старания сдать экзамен, ничего не зная, вы понимаете, что единственная оценка, которая вам светит, – это неуд, нужно идти на крайние меры.

Можно предложить преподавателю решить вопрос полюбовно. Некоторые из них согласны повысить балл, если вы сможете быть ему чем-то полезным. Например, сделаете уборку в аудитории, или купите новый набор колб для опытов по химии. Иные преподаватели способны поменять гнев на милость, если вы заявитесь к ним с бутылочкой хорошего коньяка. В этом деле важно быть очень осторожным, и попытаться найти персональный подход к каждому. Помните, что в случае отказа преподавателя от такого варианта решения вопроса, сдать экзамен на свои знания вам будет сложнее. Возможно, вас ждут завышенные требования к качеству ответов и дополнительные каверзные вопросы.

Как сдать устный экзамен ничего не зная. Стратегия успеха

Вы должны выглядеть уверенным и подготовленным

Спокойно входите в кабинет, смело берите билет, не допускайте грустных пауз при ответе. Рассуждайте, что бы то ни было.

Не говорите: «Не знаю», что бы там не произошло, вы просто «не помните».

Создайте впечатление эрудированного человека

Стройте сложные фразы, отягощенные вводными конструкциями. Употребляйте побольше «умных» слов, терминов, иноязычных заимствований.

Возможно, преподаватель, услышав милое его уху слово, немедленно прекратит допрос и поставит «отлично».

Эффект вашей фразы прямо пропорционален ее длине и запутанности

Говорите, не останавливаясь, формально придерживаясь темы, оперируя сведениями, полученными от преподавателя, так чтобы ваша речь при этом не была похожа на чепуху. Говорите ровным монотонным голосом.

Усыпите бдительность преподавателя и создайте иллюзию, что ключевая информация уже изложена.

Излагайте информацию с умным видом и энтузиазмом

Проявите свою искреннюю заинтересованность темой и увлеченность предметом. Вы добьетесь уважения преподавателя и создадите иллюзию хорошего знания предмета.

Ссылайтесь на независимые источники

Цитируйте, называйте побольше имен, дат, ссылайтесь на информацию, полученную из книг, фильмов, передач, личного опыта и лекций по другим предметам.

Проявите свою фантазию и креативность

Даже если не знаете ответа, попробуйте подумать и сказать наугад.

Одна моя подруга умудрилась почти правильно доказать неизвестную ей теорему по геометрии.

Если вы знаете ответ на первый вопрос билета и только половину ответа на второй вопрос, то скажите примерно так: «Позвольте, я отвечу сначала на второй вопрос, так как лучше всего разбираюсь в нем», а затем уверенно, спокойно и без остановки начните отвечать. Вас остановят и попросят перейти к первому вопросу, а его-то вы знаете хорошо.

Оденьтесь соответственно

Если от преподавательницы ушел муж, то во всех красивых студентках она подсознательно будет видеть свою соперницу. Если у нее не может найти хорошую работу сын, то она сама того не осознавая будет представлять всех энергичных студентов его конкурентами.

Поэтому красивой модно одетой студентке стоит на время отказаться от мини-юбок и декольте, а студенту стоит изобразить скромного молодого человека.

Напротив, если преподаватель всегда одет стильно и как с иголочки, не стоит являться на экзамен в костюме а-ля «деревня Клюевка».

Идите отвечать в первой пятерке добровольцев

Сложился стереотип, что первыми отвечают самые подготовленные. Даже, если вы что-то напутаете, вам зачтут вашу смелость.

В конце дня экзаменатор уже устанет, но и вы измотаетесь. В этом случае старайтесь отвечать за более слабым студентом. А лучше за двоечником. На его фоне вы будете выглядеть лучше.

Как сдать экзамен, ничего не зная: советы на будущее

Задумываться об экзаменах нужно еще тогда, когда начинается новый предмет и появляется новый учитель.

Нет, я не о том, что надо учиться. Создайте хорошую репутацию и вас не будут валить.

Постарайтесь заранее сформировать хорошие отношения с учителем

Совсем не обязательно ради прикола поджигать ему за спиной волосы, срывать урок интересными шуточками или приглашать специальную комиссию проверять наличие тараканов в общежитии накануне выпускных экзаменов. (Был у нас такой защитник прав студентов, закончил с тройками по всем госам.)

Создайте впечатление любознательного ученика

Иногда задавайте учителю интересные вопросы по теме урока или делитесь с ним новой для вас информацией, вычитанной из журналов или услышанной в телепередаче.

Расспрашивайте преподавателя о его ученых степенях, диссертациях, научных публикациях, если они есть, конечно. Будьте уверены, вас оценят и запомнят.

Выручайте учителя в трудной ситуации

Помогайте в организации смотра самодеятельности или на субботнике, активно участвуйте в театральной постановке или пишите статейки в стенгазету.

Иными словами, если не хотите зубрить, умейте вовремя подвернуться под руку учителя, оказаться полезным или поболтать по душам.

Поддерживайте хорошие отношения со студентами старших курсов

У них всегда можно найти готовые контрольные, лабораторные, конспекты и курсовые. А еще они знают все слабые стороны педагогов, знают какие лекции обязательно нужно посещать, а где можно не появляться, по каким экзаменам можно получить автомат, а где будут спрашивать строго.

Найдите нужного человека, подкармливайте пивом и заучите его телефон.

Постарайтесь получить автомат по предмету

Возможно нужно просто примерно походить на лекции в конце семестра и сдать пару рефератов. (см. пункт 4)

Поощряйте старосту отмечать ваше присутствие на лекциях даже если свалили домой при помощи шоколадок.

Как сдать экзамен ничего не зная: черные методы

Досрочная сдача

Обязательно разузнайте в каких условиях она происходит.

Если вы будете отвечать с другой группой — лучше отказажитесь.

Если вы будете сидеть со всеми на лекции, то это – отличный шанс. Даже если вас посадят за первую парту, ждите, пока учитель не отвернется к доске. Помните, что когда преподаватель говорит, ему удобнее и интереснее смотреть на слушающих, а не на того, кто уткнулся в листок бумаги.

Метод «пробить мазу»

Берите бутылку коньяку, коробку конфет и идиете к преподу. Только ни в коем случае не в тот день, когда у него было совещание или с утра хмурое лицо, потому что жена не дала.

Идите в субботу или вечером в пятницу, когда преподаватель находится в радостном предвкушении выходных. Ваши подарки будут весьма кстати.

Главное быть понаглее. Если учитель бутылку возьмет, а автомат не поставит, значит, на экзамене к вам будет совершенно другое отношение.

Шпоры

Пишите шпоры сами. Так у вас в голове лишний раз отложится информация.

Постарайтесь выучить основы курса и ответы на любимые вопросы препода.

Не держите шпоры на ногах, под партой и там, куда трудно заглядывать.

Шпора должна быть у шариковой ручки и ваша голова должна быть повернута к ручке. Не делайте никаких движений головой и резких движений.

Никогда не списывайте с книг и методичек. Не ленитесь написать шпоргалки. Времени при подготовке к экзамену на это точно хватит.

Бомбы

Бомбы – листки с готовыми ответами, которыми вы замените ваш чистый листок бумаги. Продумайте, как вы их будете доставать.

Напишите бомбу, подложив под нее чистый лист бумаги. Сильно нажимайте на ручку, чтобы слова отпечатались на белом листе. Исписанные листки выбросьте, а стопку белых листочков с оттиском принесите на экзамен. Потом просто обведете невидимые надписи ручкой.

Технические средства

Запишите ответы на плеер, диктофон, телефон и используйте беспроводные наушники. Наушник лучше спрятать в рукаве на резинке или под шарфом.

Можно закачать на телефон фотошпаргалку, скачать с интернета готовые шпоры или учебники, сохранить информацию в черновиках смс.

Справка о болезни

Если еще до захода в кабинет ясно, что шансов у вас нет, бегите в больницу за справочкой на сегодняшнее число. Лучше неявка на экзамен, чем неуд.

Коротко об экзамене

Испытание проходит в устной форме. Его цель — проверить навыки общения на английском, которые ты приобрёл за время обучения в школе. Подготовиться к экзамену лучше заранее: билеты по английскому языку можно купить в книжных магазинах или заказать на сайте OZ.by . Аудиоприложение к билетам можно скачать на сайте издательства «Аверсэв» . В аудиторию, где проходит экзамен, приглашают по четыре человека. Если ученик затрудняется ответить по билету, он может перетянуть его. Снижается ли в таком случае отметка? Этот вопрос решает комиссия.

Помни: экзамен по английскому начинается с того момента, когда ты вошёл в кабинет. Переступил порог — забудь русский язык, представь себя коренным англичанином. Поздоровайся с присутствующими: «Good morning!». Никаких «Hello!» и «Hi!». Ещё один важный момент: экзаменационный билет по-английски звучит как «examination card», а не «ticket». И не забудь назвать номер своего билета: «My examination card is number five» or «The number of my examination card is number five».

Экзамен по английскому языку состоит из трёх этапов

Тебе предстоит пройти аудирование, беседу по прочитанному тексту и на предложенную тему. Последовательность этапов определяет комиссия. Каждый блок заданий оценивается отдельно, итоговая отметка выводится как средняя арифметическая.

Беседа по прочитанному тексту

По номеру билета, который ты вытянешь, комиссия предлагает текст (научно-популярный, публицистический или художественный). Даётся примерно 20 минут на его прочтение и осмысление, так что будь внимателен. Перечитай текст несколько раз, обрати внимание на пояснения к нему (при наличии таковых), спроси себя, всё ли ты понял. Если увидел незнакомое слово, попробуй определить его значение по контексту.

Когда пойдёшь отвечать, листок с текстом будет у тебя перед глазами — подсматривай структуру предложений и отдельные слова, но не забывай отрывать глаза от написанного. Комиссия может спросить, о чём этот текст, какова его основная мысль, задать уточняющие вопросы.

Если не понял вопрос или отдельное слово, переспроси. Воспользуйся следующими выражениями: «Could you repeat the question / that, please?», «Could you say it once again, please?», «I didn’t understand / get it». Нужна буквально секунда, чтобы сориентироваться по ответу, — не впадай в ступор! Фразы «May I have a minute», «Let me think» помогут учителям понять, что ты собираешься с мыслями. Давай развёрнутые ответы, опираясь на содержание прочитанного. Но не сиди уткнувшись в текст, это произведёт плохое впечатление на комиссию.

Аудирование

Перед тем как приступить к прослушиванию записи, ты получаешь листок с вопросами, на которые потом будешь отвечать комиссии. Аудиозапись длится полторы минуты и представляет собой фрагмент радиопередачи, диалог, рассказ или интервью. На подготовку отводится 10 минут. Имена собственные и сложные для распознавания на слух слова даются в печатном виде.

Внимательно прослушай текст два раза: в первый пойми суть текста, во второй найди ответы на вопросы. Чтобы не тратить время на дословную запись, делай пометки, по которым сможешь дать развёрнутый ответ.

Беседа на предложенную тему

К разговорной части экзамена по английскому ты не готовишься заранее. На данном этапе проверяется умение излагать свою точку зрения, поддерживать беседу.

Не употребляй те слова, в значении или произношении которых ты не уверен. Замени их синонимами или перестрой фразу. Старайся разговаривать непринуждённо, улыбайся. Внимательно слушай вопросы учителей, переспрашивай, когда не понимаешь, отвечай развёрнутыми предложениями.

В конце экзамена поблагодари комиссию за внимание и попрощайся: «Thank you for your attention», «Thank you for taken time», «See you!», «Bye!», «Have a nice day!». Вежливость сыграет в твою пользу! Тренируйся на уроках английского языка, чтобы на экзамене чувствовать себя like a fish in water. А если нужна помощь профессионалов, чтобы прокачать уровень английского, .

Если материал был для тебя полезен, не забудь поставить «мне нравится» в наших соцсетях

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК

№ 1

Are you proud of being Belarusian?

I am Belarusian because my parents who gave me life and brought me up are Belarusian. And what if I were born in a different country on a different continent? In my opinion, a sense of pride in your country, a sense of belonging to a particular nation develops in a person with time. Therefore at my age, by the way I am 18, I can say quite positively, that I am proud to live in Belarus.

The real treasure of Belarus is its wonderful nature. The country has hundreds of wild forests, rolling hills, green valleys, sweet-scented meadows and golden fields. Beloveshzkaya Pushcha is the only place where you can meet mighty European bison in the wild. Belarus is also famous for its clear lakes and ribbon-like rivers, that’s why it’s called a blue-eyed one. The resorts of lakes Naroch and Braslav are open all year round and let tourists experience the unforgettable peaceful atmosphere.

I am proud of the rich heroic history of my country and its people. Although for many centuries we were part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwelth and then the Russian Empire, we have managed to stay united and haven’t lost our uniqueness. Many foreigners admit that our people are extremely sociable, hospitable, and generous and we are welcoming with visitors. We are also described as resourceful and peaceful. When socializing, Belarusians are open, warm-hearted, fun-loving, humorous and outgoing in spite of all the difficulties they face in their life.

Of course I’m proud of our national holidays and traditions, especially those which are deep-rooted and typical of our nation such as Kalyady, Maslenitsa, Dazhynki. They are unique and make us stand out. Besides, they are of particular interest for tourists because they reflect our culture.

In conclusion, I’d like to say that I’m proud of my country and its people. Each time I go abroad I tell foreigners about our great past and achievements. Each time I leave the country I want to come back again, because I miss it. If I could draw I would start drawing pictures with its beautiful landscapes; if I could write I would write lyric poems about it. Belarus is the place my heart will always belong to!

2. When did the author understand that he/she is proud of being Belarusian? Find this extract and read it aloud.

3. What makes the author be proud of his/her Motherland?

4. What would the author do if he/she were a creative person?

II. Listen to the story about a girl and answer the questions below.

1. Why was Whitney worried about going to college?

2. How did she find a friend?

3. What lesson did Whitney learn?

№ 2

I. 1. Read the article and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.

UNESCO World Heritage 1 List

Belarus joined UNESCO in 1954. During many years, Belarus has been building up fruitful and dynamic relations with international organizations. Belarus programme of UNESCO activities includes numerous interesting projects in the fields of education, science, information, communications, and, of course, culture. In October 1988, Belarus joined the Convention on the Protection of theWorld Cultural and Natural Heritage. Today 4 Belarus sites have already been included into the UNESCO World Heritage List .

In 1992, the Belovezhskaya Pushcha National Park, a natural heritage object and a unique European forest reserve which has been protected since the 14th century, was the first one to become a UNESCO World Heritage Site .

In 2000, the Mir Castle Complex , which was built at the beginning of the 16th century, was also added to the UNESCO World Heritage List . The successful combination of Gothic, Baroque and Renaissance architecture 2 makesMir Castle one of Europe’s most impressive castles. In 2005, two more sites were included into the UNESCO World Heritage List . They are the Architectural, Residential and Cultural Complex of the Radziwills in Nesvizh and the Struve Geodetic Arc points 3 .

For centuries the Nesvizh Palace used to be the residence of the Radziwills, one of the richest families in Europe. Today the National Historical and Cultural Museum-Reserve Nesvizh is a wonderfully restored castle, which is visited by hundreds of tourists from all parts of the world. No wonder, it has become a landmark of Belarus.

TheStruve Arc is a world famous construction. The same sorts of points are in 10 countries: Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine and Moldova, all together 265 points. According to the historical data, there were 31 geodesic points in Belarus, and only 19 survived.

Belarus is going to propose to add Independence Avenue in Minsk for inclusion into the UNESCO World Heritage List as part of the Socialist Postwar Architecture in Central and Eastern Europe .

1 heritage [ˈheritidʒ] наследие

2 Gothic, Baroque and Renaissance architecture [ˈgoθɪk, bəˈrok, rɪˈneɪsəns ˈɑːkɪtektʃə]

3 the Struve Geodetic Arc points [ˈstruːv ˌdʒiːəʊˈdetɪk ˈɑːk ˈpɔɪnts] ГеодезическаядугаСтруве, представляющаясобойцепьопорныхпунктовнаблюдения

2. Belarus is a member of UNESCO: Find this extract and read it aloud.

3. Which Belarusians sites are included on the list for protection?

4. What other sites does Belarusian government want to be on the UNESCO List?

II. Listen to the speaker speaking about choosing a career and answer the questions below.

1. Why is choosing the right job very important?

2. Which jobs are popular among young people at present?

3. What advice does the speaker give?

III. Let’s talk about the education.

№ 3

I. 1. Read the article and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.

My ideal school

My ideal secondary school is a safe haven 1 . It shouldn’t be a place you hate going to, but a place you enjoy attending. I believe it should be social, as well as educational experience. A school should always have a soul… there should always be laughter ringing through the corridors. (Angela, 15, Moscow)

My ideal school is a school quite unlike any school we’ve heard of. This school consists of a large library and basic recreational facilities. There are no classrooms. The school is built on the idea of active learning. No student is forced to learn. (Tanya, 14, Rome)

School is the mould 2 , which shapes our future. It’s where we spend most of our valuable time — childhood. Yet I know from firsthand experience that many aspects should be changed: the impersonal attitude of some teachers who do everything only for results, instead of creating happy moments and valuable life experience for young people. These young people are far from being an ‘empty pot’ who are ready to be filled with knowledge. They are simply locked boxes full of potential which should be discovered by caring and encouraging teachers. (Anna, 15, Riga)

Schools may be getting good results but they are not helping the students as individuals. It seems to me that it’s the learner who should ask questions. Give us the freedom to ask questions and do help us to find answers. Don’t you see we learn more from our experience and when people trust and respect us? We learn from our mistakes as well. (Hero Joy, 14, Kent)

I think differences make the world go around. Good teachers know it more than Maths rules. I think school must teach differences. And at the moment some schools are doing the opposite, trying to make everyone normal. (Kate, 13, London)

Schools should develop creativity and dreams. When schools teach people not to seek knowledge on their own, people become passive. Everybody has the right to be free and choose what to be and what not to be, schools do not give that option, they have a ‘well organised’ systematic life for you, in which you have to fit. (Luis, 15, Boston)

1 a safe haven [ˈheɪvn]надёжноеи безопасноеместо

2 a mould матрица, шаблон

1. One of the children says that school should have a soul. Find this extract and read it aloud.

2. What do the children want to change at school?

3. Why do the children want more freedom?

1. What is wrong with the accommodation?

2. Why did the boy oversleep?

3. What agreement did he reach with the person on Reception?

№ 4

I. 1. Read the article and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.

Anna’s diary

SATURDAY, JUNE 20, 1942

Writing in a diary is a really strange experience for someone like me. Not only because I’ve never written anything before, but also because it seems to me that later on neither I nor anyone else will be interested in the thoughts of a thirteen-year-old schoolgirl. Oh well, it doesn’t matter. I feel like writing, and I have an even greater need to get all kinds of things off my chest 1 .

“Paper has more patience than people.” I thought of this saying on one of those days when I was feeling a little depressed and was sitting at home with my chin in my hands. I was bored and wondering whether to stay in or go out. I finally stayed where I was and decided to start a diary. Yes, paper does have more patience, and since I’m not planning to let anyone else read this notebook, unless I should ever find a real friend, it probably won’t make a bit of difference.

Now I’m back to the point that prompted me to keep a diary in the first place: I don’t have a friend. Let me put it more clearly, since no one will believe that a thirteen-year-old girl is completely alone in the world. And I’m not. I have loving parents and a sixteen-year-old sister, and there are about thirty people I can call friends. I have a bunch of admirers who can’t keep their adoring eyes off me and who constantly try to catch a glimpse 1 of me in the classroom. I have a family, loving aunts and a good home. No, on the surface I seem to have everything, except my one true friend.

All I think about when I’m with friends is having a good time. I can’t bring myself to talk about anything but ordinary everyday things. We don’t seem to be able to get closer, and that’s a problem. Maybe it’s my fault that we don’t trust each other. In any case, that’s just how things are. That’s why I started the diary.

To enhance 3 the image of this long-awaited friend in my imagination, I don’t want to write only about facts, but I want the diary to be my friend, and I am going to call this friend Kitty.

1 to get off one’s chest облегчитьдушу

2 a glimpse [ɡlɪmps] взгляд

3 to enhance[ɪnˈhɑːns] усилить

2. The author explains why she decided to keep a diary. Find this extract and read it aloud.

3. What close people did Anna have?

4. Why did Anna start writing in a diary?

II. Listen to Alice speaking about her first job and answer the questions below.

1. What job did Alice do?

2. What difficulties did she have?

3. What did she learn at work?

III. Let’s talk about the environment.

№ 5

Be kind and stay safe

Everybody knows that we should be polite and kind to people in real life and online. Unfortunately this doesn’t always happen. Where can you report online abuse 1 or unkind messages to yourself or your friends? Do you know how to report and complain about harmful information online? For example, if you see an inappropriate tweet on Twitter you can click on ‘more’ and then choose ‘Report tweet’. You can then block all further tweets from that user.

Even celebrities can be cyberbullied 2 . Tom Daley, the British Olympic diver, was abused online. His father died during the 2012 Olympic Games and Tom received some very cruel tweets about his indifference towards his father’s health.

Here are our top tips for staying safe online:

1. Be nice! Treat people online as you do in real life.

2. Don’t post anything online that you wouldn’t want people in real life to see.

3. Check your privacy and security settings on social media sites and keep them as private as possible. Make sure you know exactly who can see your posts.

4. Don’t ever post personal information like your home address, your email or your phone number.

5. If you see something online that worries or upsets you, tell an adult about it straight away.

6. Take part in Safer Internet Day.

Safer Internet Day, or SID for short, tries to help people to use the Internet correctly. SID started in 2004 and is organised in February every year in 74 countries around the world to promote safe and responsible use of online technology and mobile phones. Each year there is a different topic such as cyberbullying or social networking. The focus for SID’s next campaign is “Let’s create a better internet together”. SID organisers want children and young people, parents and teachers, as well as industry and politicians to work together to build a better internet for all of us, but particularly for children.

There are special lessons prepared for schoolchildren on Safer Internet Day in Britain. You can find out about SID on this website: http://www.saferinternet.org.uk/.

1 abuse [əˈbjuːs] оскорбление

2 to be cyberbullied [ˈsaɪbəbʊlɪd] бытьпреследуемымвкиберпространстве

2. The journalist writes how to stop bad messages on Twitter. Find this extract and read it aloud.

3. What can we do to stay safe online?

4. Why is SID a good way to stop abuse on the Internet?

II. Listen to the conversation and answer the questions below.

1. Where does the conversation take place?

2. What is the man interested in?

3. How much do you need to pay monthly?

№ 6

I. 1. Read the magazine article and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.

Christmas Tree

Just before Christmas in 1944, a letter arrived at our house in Philadelphia. The postmark was from Tuskegee, Alabama, so we all knew who it was from. We excitedly gathered around Mother as she opened it.

My Dear Mother,

I did not get the leave I expected for Christmas. I will miss all of you. Please leave the Christmas tree up until I make it back. I hope to be home by March.

Love from your son,

I was 17 years old at the time. My heart sank. I felt a deep sadness that my favourite brother would not be home for Christmas. He was one of the Tuskegee Airmen 1 and was responsible for maintaining 2 the airplanes flying off to fight in World War II. My mother, being the optimist, said, “Well, it looks like we’ll get to have two Christmases this year!” After Christmas, my sister and I worked together to make sure we kept that Christmas tree looking as pretty as possible. This was no easy feat.

By mid-January, the branches dropped so low to the ground that they became a sliding board for the decorations. Each day, ornaments would come crashing to the ground and there were brand new pine needles 3 all over the wooden floor. My sister and I took turns sweeping them up. We moved the ornaments to the stronger branches on the tree, hoping they would stay on.

Each time we freshened that tree up, my sister and I were full of thoughts about Clifton and how happy we would be to see him again. It made us feel that he was close by, even though he was hundreds of miles away. On March 5, the doorbell rang. We ran to the door and gave Clifton a big hug. As he hugged Mother, I could see him looking over her head at the Christmas tree.

“It’s beautiful,” he said. “Thank you.” Clifton opened his presents and told us all sorts of stories about his work in Tuskegee. That night as we slept, we heard a crash in the living room. We all ran to see what had happened. The tree had toppled 4 onto the sofa and there were needles and broken ornaments everywhere.

We all had a good laugh. It was fortunate that Clifton got!

1 Tuskegee Airmen пилотыизТаскиги

2 to maintain обслуживать, готовить

3 a pine needle [ˈpaɪnˌ niːdl] сосноваяиголка

4 to topple [ˈtɒpl]опрокинуться, свалиться

2. The family got a message from Clifton. Find the extract which says about it and read it aloud.

3. What was Clifton’s job?

4. What proves that all the family loved Clifton very much?

II. Listen to three teenagers talking about homework and answer the questions below.

1. Why does the first speaker dislike doing homework?

2. What does the second speaker regret about?

3. What are the benefits of doing homework according to the third speaker?

III. Let’s talk about sport and a healthy way of life.

№ 7

I. 1. Read the magazine article and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.

The Condemned Room 1

Dear Mom,

I am working very hard on cleaning my room. But I want to go to Katy’s this afternoon to work on our Halloween costumes. Can I finish tomorrow? I would get up early and do it before breakfast and I’ll do a good job. Please, w rite back. Love, The Prisoner in Tower # 3

Dear Prisoner, No.

Love, Mom.

For days Sam’s mother never came up to her room. And then one day Sam would come home from school and find the Condemned sign on her door. Her mother had made the sign. It said: “The room is condemned. Its owner may not go anywhere or do anything until the area is restored”. In other words, Sam was to stay in until she cleaned her room.

It wasn’t fair. She was always getting the Condemned sign. Her brother hardly ever did. And his room was really disgusting, with posters of rock stars and basketball stars and movie stars wearing tiny bikinis covering every inch of his walls. But, her mother pointed out, his floor was clean and his desk as well. That was all she cared about.

Sam had been in her room for three hours now. She sat on the floor, looking at everything she was supposed to be putting away. It was possible she might be there all day. There were her clothes, lying high on her chair and overflowing onto the floor. Dirty shoes. An umbrella from when it rained on Tuesday. Library books. Magazines with pictures of cool teen-movie stars that Rebecca had given her. Her piano music from yesterday’s lesson. And different little things: nail polish remover, cotton balls, a tennis-ball, a note pad from Katy, rocks from rock collection they were making for science, pencils, chewing gum. And about twelve dirty handkerchiefs.

The thing to do, Sam decided, was sort everything into piles. A pile of dirty laundry, a pile of her dresser drawers, a pile to throw away. That was how her father, the organization man, would do it. She sighed. It was impossible to imagine she couldn’t leave her room all week-end. She decided to paint her finger nails instead.

1 condemned room комната, признаннаянебезопаснойдляпроживания

2. The author tells us about her brother’s room. Find this extract and read it aloud.

3. What made Sam’s Mum write a message?

4. Is Sam going to clean the room? Why do you think so?

II. Listen to the conversation and answer the questions below.

1. Where was Tina going?

2. What happened at the airport?

3. Why was Tina scared during the flight?

№ 8

I. 1. Read the article and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.

Great grandad

It was a funny, surprising thing that brought Grandad back to me. It was algebra. I couldn’t cope with algebra in my first year at secondary school, and it made me mad. “I don’t see the point of it,” I screamed. “I don’t know what it’s for!”

Grandad, as it turned out, liked algebra and he sat opposite me and didn’t say anything for a while, considering my problem in that careful expressionless way of his.

Eventually he said, “Why do you do PE 1 at school?”

“What?”

“PE. Why do they make you do it?”

“Because they hate us?” I suggested.

“And the other reason?”

“To keep us fit, I suppose.”

“Physically fit, yes.”

He reached across the table and put the first two fingers of each hand on the sides of my head.

“There is also mental fitness, isn’t there? I can explain to you why algebra is useful. But that is not what algebra is really for.”

He moved his fingers gently on my head.

“It’s to keep what is in here healthy. PE is for the head. And the great thing is you can do it sitting down. Now, let us use these little puzzles here to take our brains for a jog.” 2

And it worked. Not that I fell in love with algebra. But I did come to see that it was possible to enjoy it. Grandad taught me that maths signs and symbols were not just marks on paper. They were not flat. There were three-dimensional, and you could approach them from different directions. You could take them apart and put them together in a variety of shapes, like Lego. I stopped being afraid of them.

I didn’t know it at the time, of course, but those homework sessions helped me to discover my Grandad. Algebra turned out to be the key that opened the invisible door he lived behind and let me in.

Now I learnt that Grandad’s world was full of miracles and mazes, mirrors and misleading signs. He was fascinated by riddles and codes and labyrinths, by the origin of place names, by grammar, by slang, by jokes — although he never laughed at them — by anything that might mean something else. I discovered My Grandad.

1 PE [ˌpiːiː] физкультура

2 take our brains for a jog [ˈteɪk əʊə ˈbreɪnz fər əˈdʒɒɡ] шевелитьмозгами

2. The author says she had problems with algebra. Find this extract and read it aloud.

3. How did Granddad help the author understand the subject?

4. What else did the author understand about her Granddad?

II. Listen to the member of the Greenpeace organisation telling a story about whales and answer the questions below.

1. Why were the whales on the beach?

2. How did the people help them?

3. How did this event affect the story-teller’s life?

№ 9

I. 1. Read the article and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.

AN INTERVIEW

Journalist: Do people in your country depend a lot on technology for communication?

Businessman: Yes. Everybody’s using all kinds of phones, mobiles and internet services. I think the benefits of the computers cannot be denied. They save valuable time and space. Time-consuming tasks such as checking bank accounts can now be done in a matter of minutes and a large volume of information is economically stored on tiny disks. In addition, with immediate access to the Internet, we can always keep-up with global and current issues and explore the world from the comfort of our homes.

Journalist: Do you manage to keep up with the development of technologies?

Businessman: I think the fact that methods in business have moved ahead at such speed has meant that we generally have to keep up with it all, whether we want to or not. Otherwise, we’ll be left behind. In fact this need to keep up has also entered the home, where a lot of people spend much money on computer equipment when all they do is play games.

Journalist: How different would everyday life be without technological means of communication?

Businessman: Of course, life would be very different without all these means of communication. For those working in the world of business, life would be much more difficult as it would take much longer to get in touch with other companies and to come to agreement on important matters. Basically, if we didn’t have email systems at home or mobile phones, etc., it wouldn’t be the end of the world. I mean, we survived before, didn’t we?

Journalist: How do you feel about mobile phones?

Businessman: I personally find them useful and necessary. They’re convenient if there’s an emergency on a business trip or when you’re in the middle of nowhere or need to contact the police or your family for example. Though, I do feel that they are overused in many cases. Think about how many people spend hours just chatting about silly, unimportant things or looking through sites for no special reason even at work.

  1. What are the benefits of the computers? Read aloud the extract which says about them.

3. How do businessmen benefit from using technological means of communication at their workplace?

4. When are technological means of communication misused?

II. Listen to the conversation and answer the questions below.

1. Where does the action take place?

2. What happened to the furniture in the grandmother’s room?

3. Why were Martin and his friend scared?

№ 10

1. Read the article and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.

What is a good family?

Building a successful family is like building a house. Both need a plan. The best way to be organised as a family is to talk about family matters. By doing this, families enjoy a special closeness and stability. Choosing to spend time with your family sends a message more powerful than words.

How much time should families spend together? That varies from family to family. Families with young children usually spend most of their time together because young children need a great deal of physical care and guidance. Families with teenagers may spend less time together because teens naturally want to spend more time with their friends. Healthy families keep a good balance between ‘too much’ and ‘not enough’ time together. They spend enough time to satisfy all family members.

Nothing unites a family more than its traditions which include different norms, ways of behavior, customs and views. In united families these traditions are deep-rooted and passed from generation to generation.

Strong families take time to be together and talk to one another. They share their hopes and dreams, feelings and concerns over common meals. Members of successful families feel they really belong to their family. They celebrate their victories and help each other learn from their mistakes. They do their household chores together and go to the theatre. At the same time, strong families adapt relationships and family rules when needs arise. Since no family knows what tomorrow will bring, being adaptive is a good trait for family members to develop.

Recent studies affirm the importance of love in families. Research shows that expressions of affection towards children reduce behaviour problems and help children’s development. Strong families notice and share positive aspects of each member. They notice the talents, skills and achievements, special qualities and characteristics that make the other person unique. They find ways to be positive even when another family member makes a mistake and make an effort to develop closeness and show love at home.

2. The author explains what makes a successful family. Find this extract and read it aloud.

3. What makes a family united?

4. How much time should family members spend together?

II. Listen to the girl speaking about her eating habits and answer the questions below.

1. What problem does the girl have?

2. Why is it a harmful habit?

3. Why can’t she stop eating chocolate?

III. Let’s talk about youth and society.

№ 11

I. 1. Read the article and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.

PYTHAGORAS*

Pythagoras 1 is often described as a very important mathematician, yet we know little about his achievements. What we do know is that he was the leader of a society which was half scientific and half religious. It was a secret society and today Pythagoras is still a mysterious figure.

It is believed that Pythagoras was born on the Greek island of Samos. His father was a merchant, and as a child, Pythagoras travelled with him selling their goods. Pythagoras was well educated. He learned music and poetry and had three philosophers to teach him who introduced Pythagoras to mathematics and advised him to travel to Egypt to learn more about mathematics and astronomy. So in 535 BC, Pythagoras travelled to Egypt where he visited many temples and took part in discussions with priests. Many of the customs he learnt in Egypt he came to adopt. For example, the Egyptian priests refused to eat beans and wear animal skins, as did Pythagoras later in his life.

In 525 BC the King of Persia invaded Egypt. Pythagoras was taken prisoner and was transported to Babylon. It was here, taught by the Babylonians, that he reached perfection in arithmetic and music. When Pythagoras returned to Samos he founded there a school which was called ‘The Semicircle’. It seems that the people of Samos did not appreciate the teaching methods of Pythagoras and they treated him rudely and improperly. Furthermore, they wanted to involve Pythagoras in local politics against his will. For these reasons, he went to Italy.

Pythagoras believed that numbers rule the universe and that numbers are present in all things. He also connected mathematics to music and recognized the healing power of music. He used it as a kind of therapy to help those who were ill. Another of his beliefs was that there are three types of men: those who love wisdom, those who love honour and those who love wealth.

Pythagoras was a mathematician, an astronomer, and a philosopher. Today we remember him best for his famous geometry theorem, known as Pythagoras’ theorem. 2

1 Pythagoras Пифагор

2 Pythagoras’ theorem теоремаПифагора

2. Where did Pythagoras go to learn mathematics and astronomy? Read aloud the extract which says about it.

3. Why did Pythagoras go to Italy?

4. What are the three types of men according to Pythagoras?

II. Listen to the interview taken by the “Youth Magazine” with Mr Ron Cansler and answer the questions below.

1. How old is Mr Cansler?

2. What helped him to stay healthy?

3. What does he recommend listeners should do?

№ 12

I. 1. Read the article and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.

AMELIA

Possibly the most famous female pilot ever, Amelia Earhart was born in 1897 in Kansas, the USA. Amelia had a difficult and unsettled childhood. Her family travelled a great deal so her father could find work. Although she often missed school, Amelia was nevertheless considered to be very bright academically. She enjoyed reading and poetry as well as sports, especially basketball and tennis.

After graduating from high school, instead of going to college, Amelia decided to study nursing. During the First World War, she worked as a military nurse in Canada. When the war ended she became a social worker back in America and taught English to immigrants. In her free time, Amelia enjoyed going to air shows and watching aerial stunts 1 , which were very popular during the 1920s. Her fascination with flying began when, at one of those shows, she took a ten-minute ride, and from that moment on she knew she had to learn to fly.

Amelia took on several odd jobs to pay for the flying lessons and after a year, she had saved enough money to buy her own plane. She organized cross-country air races for women pilots and formed a now famous women pilots’ organization, called the ‘Ninety-Nines’. One day Amelia received an invitation to be the first woman ever to make the flight across the Atlantic from Canada to Britain. Amelia made the flight in 1928 and, although she was only a passenger and two men flew the plane, it made her a celebrity. She also met there her future husband, George Putman, a publisher, who arranged the flight and organized all the publicity.

In 1932 Amelia and George decided Amelia should make the Atlantic crossing from America to Britain alone. She broke several records on this flight; she became the first woman to fly the Atlantic solo, the only person to have flown it twice and she established a new transatlantic crossing record of 13 hours and 30 minutes. Understandably, she became even more famous as a result earning respect for women pilots all over the world by proving that women could fly as well as men, if not better.

1 an aerial stunt [ˈɛərɪəl ˈstʌnt] фигуравысшегопилотажа

2. How did Amelia get interested in flying? Read aloud the extract which says about it.

3. What invitation did Amelia receive one day?

4. Why did Amelia become famous?

II. Listen to the conversation between Nancy and her mum.

1. What do Nancy’s parents worry about?

2. Why does Nancy refuse to do household chores?

3. What arguments does Mum use to make Nancy clean the room?

III. Let’s talk about the mass media.

№ 13

I. 1. Read the article and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.

THE STRESS OF COMMUTING 1

In today’s modern world, people are constantly looking for ways to avoid stress and improve their lifestyle. Too much stress can lead to a variety of illnesses from headaches to high blood pressure. Simple things, such as driving to and from work on a daily basis, can be such a stressful experience that many people are left feeling totally exhausted. Cars can give normally peaceful people a feeling of power that can make them more aggressive.

Fortunately, there are various means of public transport to choose from within modern towns and cities. Sometimes, all we need to do is to change a few of our long-standing habits in order to discover a much more comfortable way of life. By simply planning journeys, not only can we save time and money, but we can also reduce stress levels dramatically. By using public transport everybody wins. Most towns and cities are well-covered by bus, tram and metro services. While making use of these services, you are also helping against increasing levels of pollution.

Public transport systems have improved considerably in recent years and there is now more focus on environmentally friendly forms. For example, old tram systems have been reintroduced into many European cities, making movement across large areas much faster and ‘cleaner’.

Another way of reducing levels of both stress and pollution is an introduction of an environmentally friendly network of cycle tracks. The aim of building cycle tracks is to motivate people to use their bicycles instead of their cars. So, next time you see your neighbor or colleague waiting at a bus stop as you drive by, don’t feel sorry for him because he will, no doubt, arrive at the office much earlier than you as you will still be fighting to find a parking space.

Or you might consider another way of getting to work. Carpooling 2 is a relatively new and convenient system when several people arrange to share one private car to get to work. And some companies have already introduced a plan where those who carpool get preferential parking in the company garage.

1 commuting ежедневные поездки на работу в город из пригорода и обратно

2 to carpool [ˈkɑːˌpuːl] подвозить на машине по очереди

2. The network of public transport has improved lately. Read aloud the extract which says about it.

3. How can we help reduce pollution?

4. Why is carpooling convenient?

II. Listen to the advice how to make a good friend and answer the questions below.

1. How do people feel if they have no friend?

2. What qualities does a good friend have?

3. Why is it good to be a real friend?

III. Let’s talk about international cooperation.

№ 14

I. Read the article and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.

Video Blogger

In April 2007, a 16-year-old English boy named Charlie McDonnell was studying for his exams. But he was bored, so he turned on his computer and started surfing the web. He soon found a website called YouTube and within minutes he was watching a video of another teenager sitting in his bedroom and talking to his computer about how bored he was. ‘I could do better than that!’ thought Charlie. So, using a cheap computer and webcam, he made his first video blog and posted it on YouTube under the name Charlieissocoollike.

A few days after the first video Charlie found that he had 150 subscribers. Encouraged by this, he went on to make more videos. A month later Charlie’s audience grew and he started to get hundreds of video messages from his fans. “It was really strange,” says Charlie. “I’d been talking to my computer for a month and suddenly my computer started talking back to me!”

His next big success came a few months later when Oprah Winfrey, the famous American TV host, showed one of Charlie’s comedy videos called How to be English on her programme, which made him popular in the USA too.

Charlie also realised he could use his fame to help people less fortunate than himself. To celebrate his 18th birthday, he raised £5,000 for cancer research. He raised more than four times as much when he co-presented a live show on the Internet. He stayed awake for 24 hours performing challenges from viewers. All the money went to the children’s charity UNICEF 1 .

But what is the secret of his popularity? “I just make videos that I would want to watch,” he says, “and I’m not trying to sell anything. I’m just trying to talk with people and that’s it for me.” His honesty and modesty are perhaps the main reasons why Charlie is so well liked. And of course, he is a talented song writer, camera man, actor and singer.

And if you were wondering how Charlie did in his exams back in 2007...well, he passed with nine A grades and one B! He says that he wants to go on to study at university in the future but decided to try and make a career on YouTube before that.

1 UNICEF [ˈjuːnɪsef] ФондООНпомощидетям

2. Charlie says how the idea of making a video crossed his mind. Find this extract and read it aloud.

3. How did he become popular?

4. Why do people like Charlie?

II. Listen to Huan, a Chinese man, speaking about moving out and answer the questions below.

1. Why do young people prefer to live with their parents in Hong Kong?

2. How did Huan’s parents react to his decision?

3. What are the advantages of living on your own?

№ 15

I. 1. Read the article and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.

MAKE YOUR HOME GREENER

Residential buildings are responsible for consuming 27% of the total amount of energy consumed within Europe and are the biggest source of global warming in the world. This is a fact that has, until recently, been overlooked by lawmakers trying to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, who have concentrated their efforts on industry and transport. The EU has now passed a new law which intends to cut considerably carbon dioxide emissions 1 from buildings. This means that each of us can now save the planet from the comfort of our own homes.

The first things we can do are simple and easy. We can block up draughts 2 , switch off unnecessary lights and make sure cold and hot water taps are not left running. The next step requires more planning and some expense, but as well as saving energy, we will also save on bills. Many homes have window and roof insulation 3 but it is rarely enough. Full insulation can have a dramatic effect on energy consumption. We should use energy efficient light bulbs. These are usually expensive to buy but consume less than half the energy of standard bulbs. These bulbs last much longer than conventional light bulbs reducing the consumption of resources. Also, thermal solar panels are very efficient. They are capable of providing all the hot water you need.

We can install a ‘grey’ water recycling system. At present water used to flush the toilets is of the same drinkable quality that comes out of the taps. This is an unnecessary waste of energy used in water purification. A grey water recycling system cleans water that has been used for washing and sends it through the toilet system reducing the use of clean drinking water.

New buildings have more energy saving features in their design. They can have a wooden structure, extensive insulation, electronic environmental controls, triple glazing 4 , a non-polluting heating system and a turf 5 roof. However, it is how we deal with our present homes that will determine housing’s contribution to global warming. It’s down to each of us, so get insulating!

1 carbon dioxide emissions [ˈkɑːbən daɪˈɒkˈsaɪd ɪˈmɪʃnz]выбросыуглекислогогаза

3 insulation [ˌɪnsjʊˈleɪʃn] изоляция, утепление

4 glazing [ˈɡleɪzɪŋ] остекление

5 turf торф

2. What energy saving features in the design of the building are used nowadays? Read aloud the extract which says about it.

3. What can we do to cut carbon dioxide emissions from buildings?

4. What is considered to be an unnecessary waste of energy used in water purification?

II. Listen to the tour guide and answer the questions below.

1. What sort of tour is it?

2. What will the tourists see on the tour?

3. Why does the tourist ask to return the money?

III. Let’s talk about outstanding people.

№ 16

I. 1. Read the article and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.

MR WEMMICK’S “CASTLE”

Wemmick’s house was a little wooden cottage in the middle of a large garden. The top of the house had been built and painted like a battery loaded with guns. I said I really liked it. I think Wemmick’s house was the tiniest I had ever seen. It had very few windows and the door was almost too small to get in.

‘Look,’ said Wemmick, after I have crossed this bridge, I raise it so that nobody can enter the Castle.’

The ‘bridge’ was a plank 1 and it crossed a gap about four feet 2 wide and two feet deep. But I enjoyed seeing the smile on Wemmick’s face and the pride with which he raised his bridge. The gun on the roof of the house, he told me, was fired every night at nine o’clock. I later heard it. Immediately, it made an impressive sound.

‘At the back,’ he said, ‘there are chickens, ducks, geese, and rabbits. I’ve also got my own little vegetable garden and I grow cucumbers. Wait until supper and you’ll see for yourself what kind of salad I can make. If the Castle is ever attacked, I will be able to survive for quite a while,’ he said with a smile, but at the same time seriously.

Then Wemmick showed me his collection of curiosities. They were mostly to do with being on the wrong side of the law: a pen with which a famous forgery 3 had been committed, some locks of hair, several manuscript confessions written from prison.

‘I am my own engineer, my own carpenter, my own plumber and my own gardener. I am my own Jack of all Trades 4 ,’ said Wemmick, receiving my compliments. Wemmick told me that it had taken many years to bring his property to this state of perfection.

‘Is it your own, Mr. Wemmick?’

‘Oh yes, I have got a hold of it a bit at a time. I have absolute ownership now. You know, the office is one thing, and private life is another. When I go to the office, I leave the Castle behind me, and when I come to the Castle, I leave the office behind me. If you don’t mind, I’d like you to do the same. I don’t want to talk about my home in a professional manner.

1 plank брус, доска

2 feet — мн. ч. от foot — мера длины, равная 30,48 см

3 forgery [ˈfɔdʒərɪ] подделка

4 Jack of all Tradesмастернавсеруки

2. ‘An Englishman’s home is his castle’. Read aloud the extract which proves this idea.

3. What do we understand about Wemmick’s home life?

4. Why does Wemmick call himself Jack of all Trades?

II. Listen to a part of the interview with a thirteen-year old writer, Sally Myers, and answer the questions below.

1. What made Sally write the book?

2. What did Sally’s Dad think about the book?

3. How did Sally’s life change after publishing the book?

№ 17

I. 1. Read the article and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.

MOTHER TERESA

Mother Teresa was a simple nun 1 . She never wanted to be famous, but everyone in the world knows who she is.

Mother Teresa was born in 1910 in what is now Macedonia 2 . She was the youngest of three children. Agnes’s father died when she was a child. Her mother made dresses to support the family. Agnes’s mother also liked to do charity work, such as visiting the sick. Agnes often went with her, and she enjoyed helping these people.

Even as a child, Agnes wanted to be a nun. When she was 18 years old, she joined a group of nuns in India. There, she chose the name Teresa. Then she went to Calcutta to work at St. Mary’s School, in a convent 3 . Sister Teresa worked there for 20 years and eventually became the principal.

One day in 1946 Sister Teresa was riding on a train to Darjeeling 4 . She looked out of the window and saw dirty children wearing rags and sleeping in doorways. Sick and dying people were lying on dirty streets. At that moment, she believed God sent her a message. She decided to go to work with the poor.

Two years later, Sister Teresa left the convent and opened a school for the kids from poor families. Though at the very beginning the school had no roof, no walls, and no chairs, later it became well-known all around India. In 1948, Sister Teresa started her own group of nuns. They were called the Missionaries of Charity. The nuns lived in the slums 5 with people who were poor, dirty, and sick. It was hard work and the days were long. But many young nuns came from around the world to join Mother Teresa.

Later, she started homes for children without families. She also started clinics. Over the years, news of her work spread around the world. Many people sent her donations of money, others came to work with her. By 1990 the Missionaries of Charity were working in 400 centres around the world.

Mother Teresa got the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979. But she always said her greatest reward was helping people. Her message to the world was: ‘We can do no great things — only small things with great love’.

1 a nun монахиня

2 Macedonia [ ˌmæsəˈdəʊnɪə] страна Македония

3 a convent [ˈkɒnv(ə)nt] монастырь

4 Darjeeling городДарджилинг

5 slumsтрущобы

2. The author writes about Mother Teresa’s family. Read aloud the extract which says about it.

3. Why did Mother Teresa decide to devote her life to people in need?

4. What did Mother Teresa do for people?

II. Listen to the interview and answer the questions below.

1. What does Jackie want to become?

2. Why has she chosen this profession?

3. Why is it important for students to do sport at school?

III. Let’s talk about accommodation.

№ 18

I. 1. Read the article and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.

The most mystique 1 picture

Every hour about 1,500 people visit the Louvre Museum in Paris with the specific intention of seeing one particular painting: the Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci. Most of these visitors look at the painting for about three minutes before they walk back to the tourist buses outside.

Leonardo loved the painting very much and people say that he took it everywhere with him. The painting was originally ordered by a rich businessman in Florence, who wanted a portrait of his wife, Lisa. Leonardo began the painting in 1503 and he finished it about three or four years later. The fact that Leonardo wanted to keep the painting himself, adds to the Mona Lisa’s mystique.

Mona Lisa’s mysterious smile has fascinated everyone who has ever seen the painting. In his ‘Lives of the Artists’, written just a few years after Leonardo’s death, Giorgio Vasari wrote, ‘While painting Mona Lisa Leonardo employed singers and musicians to keep her happy and so avoid the sadness that painters usually give to portraits. As a result, there was a smile that seemed divine 2 rather than human; and those who saw it were amazed to find how alive and real it appeared.’

Modern art critics also emphasize how the portrait seems alive and real. ‘She is like a living person,’ writes art historian E.H. Gombrich, ‘She seems to change before our eyes. Even in photographs we can experience this strange effect. Sometimes she seems to be looking down on us, and sometimes we can detect sadness in her smile. All this sounds rather mysterious, and it is; that is so often the effect of a great work of art.’

The Mona Lisa is certainly a masterpiece, a magnificent work of art, but it is also a part of modern popular culture. Her image appears on plates, T-shirts, mouse pads and in advertisements. Perhaps for this reason, officials at the Louvre Museum placed the painting in a specially built area in a room with other great 16th century Italian paintings. In this way, visitors have a better chance to appreciate the painting as a work of art rather than as a tourist attraction.

1 mystique таинственный

2 divine божественный

2. Why is Mona Lisa smiling? Read aloud the extract which says about it.

  1. What makes the Mona Lisa so special?
  2. Why isn’t the painting displayed in a separate room?

II. Listen to the conversation between two friends and answer the questions below.

1. What does Christian want to become?

2. Why does Kate need to learn English?

3. What piece of advice does Christian give to his friend?

III. Let’s talk about your family.

№ 19

I. 1. Read the article and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.

Book Review

The Guinness Books of World Records 1 have certainly changed a lot in the last 60 years. The first Guinness Book was published in August 1955 in London, in Britain. Most editions were small paperbacks printed in black-and-white and contained more text than photographs. Now, there are colour pictures on every page — and the book also includes 3-D images.

This fascinating collection of records is divided into chapters on Space, The Living Planet, Being Human, Human Achievements, Spirit of Adventure, Modern Life, Science & Engineering, Entertainment, Sports, and the Gazetteer 2 .

Here you will see and read about extremes: for example, the world’s tallest, oldest, shortest, and tiniest — people, plants, animals, buildings. Some have set records for pulling buses, kissing, swimming, ironing clothes, running, and for having the longest legs, the smallest waist, etc.

Some images are a bit strange to look at for too long — check out the woman with the longest fingernails in the world. Also, one man had 14 operations to make himself look like a cat.

There’s a wide range of amazing facts contained on these pages. What is the world’s most expensive hamburger? — It is available in a New York restaurant for $120. Who had the most hit singles on the U.S. music charts? — Elvis Presley, of course, with 151 between 1956 and 2003 (and he died in 1977!). One of the most colourful sections shows records related to space, including some fantastic photographs of Jupiter. Take a look at the top movies such as the first summer blockbuster of all time, the first movie with Dolby sound, and the first to be more expensive than $100 million.

As always, there’s a helpful index in the back of the book, in which you can find subjects of interest in alphabetical order.

Please note that some stunts 3 in this book would be quite dangerous — or at least terribly painful — for you to attempt to meet or beat them. Therefore, please don’t attempt to set any world records that would cause risk to you or to others!

1 the Guinness [ˈɡɪnɪs] Books of World Records книгарекордовГиннесса

2 Gazetteer [ˌɡæzəˈtɪə] географическийсправочник

3 a stunt опасныйтрюк

2. The author describes how The Guinness World Records books changed with time. Find this extract and read it aloud.

3. What information will you find in this book?

4. Why can this book be interesting for the reader?

II. Listen to the young man describing where he lived and answer the questions below.

1. Why did the man’s family have to rent a flat for about a year?

2. What was their flat in the capital like?

3. How many people is he sharing the flat with at present?

III. Let’s talk about your future career.

№ 20

I. 1. Read the article and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.

ARE YOU READY TO BE INDEPENDENT?

Angela Rowlands recently tested her teenage children’s ability to do basic household jobs in the house. When Angela and her husband Ben went to Spain for a few weeks’ holiday on the Costa Brava, their son Mark, aged 18, and daughter Frances, aged 16, stayed at home to look after the house. The parents wanted to see how Mark and Frances would manage in the house on their own.

So when thy left the house, they did not tell the children that they had prepared a few tests for them. “We took the plug 1 off the microwave and took out some good light bulbs 2 and put in light bulbs that did not work. We also made sure that there were other problems in the house: with an Italian coffee machine and one of the taps 3 in the bathroom,” says Dr. Rowlands.

When Dr. Rowlands returned from her holiday, she found, as she had expected, that her children had failed the independence test. Mark and Frances had asked an electrician to change the plug on the microwave and to change the light bulbs. They also paid a specialist for repairing the bathroom tap. When they saw that the coffee maker was broken, they went to buy a new one. They even did not think to look for the missing part in the cupboard.

Dr. Rowlands was not surprised by the results of her experiment. “A lot of young people today are not able to solve simple problems in the house,” she says. “They often throw things away when they are broken. This is wrong because it shows that young people do not understand how things work or are made. It can also be very expensive because you have to pay other people to do the work for you.”

But repairing broken things is only part of the problem. A lot of young people cannot cook at all. If there is no ready-made meal in the fridge, or if there is nothing to warm up in the microwave, then there is nofood. This can cause health problems.

The truth is that many young people do not want to learn basic household skills as they find them boring. Though, if people want to be prepared for independent life they should learn how to do simple jobs about the house.

1 a plug штепсельнаявилка

2 a light bulb [ˈlaɪt bʌlb] лампочка

3 a tap кран

2. Why did Dr. Rowlands decide to test the children? Read aloud the extract which says about it.

3. What did the parents prepare for their children?

4. Do you think the children passed the test? Why do you think so?

II. Listen to Tom speaking about his day off and answer the questions below.

1. How did Tom spend his day off?

2. What went wrong?

3. What made Tom feel frightened?

III. Let’s talk about Belarus.

№ 21

I. 1. Read the article and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.

Technology

Technology is everywhere. We see it any place we go to and, in fact, almost all of us carry some piece of technology with us every time we leave the house. We can’t imagine our life without them. But what we always forget, though, is just how useful and powerful technology can be when we want to help others.

There is not a single room in my house that does not have some gadget lying around in it. Whenever I am at home, providing that I am not sleeping, I am almost always using at least one electronic device. If you walked into my living room on any given day, you would find that, first, I have the television on (along with the other related appliances, such as the DVD player or my current favourite game console) 1 . At the same time, even though multi-tasking is definitely not my strong point, I usually have my laptop resting on my knee, or I will be using my tablet or mobile phone. In the background, the technology that I am not using will most likely be on charge somewhere in the house. Even when I’m not at home I am constantly using my phone. At work or in cafés, I sit down and connect to the local wireless network on my laptop. I must admit that I waste a lot of time on the computer. Instead I could spend it doing some online volunteering.

The technology we carry about everywhere can have a great power to do good for the world and to help others and recently I discovered just how much online volunteering there is to do in the world. From using your language skills to do translations, to developing and managing projects and helping with IT work, there is so much that so many people can do to help people in their own countries and across the world. The United Nations, in fact, has a huge page on its website designed for recruiting volunteers.

This work can support the poor and help charities who otherwise would not have the funding to pay for staff. Many organisations only require you to work an hour a week — some even less. And the support provided by online volunteers can really help make a difference to those in need.

1 game console [ˈɡeɪm kənˈsəʊl] игроваяприставка

2. The author disapproves of the way people use electronic devices. Find this extract and read it aloud.

3. What electronic devices does the author use?

4. How can online volunteering help people?

II. Listen to the conversation and answer the questions below.

1. What are the speakers doing?

2. What didn’t impress the speakers very much?

3. What did they decide in the end?

III. Let’s talk about Great Britain.

№ 22

I. 1. Read the article and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.

From librarian to political reporter

The Pretenders is a very successful and popular TV series. In each programme there is a contestant who has just four weeks to learn to do a completely new job. At the end of the month the contestant has to do a ‘test’, where he or she has to do the new job together with three other professionals. Three judges have to identify the one who pretends.

Jessica Winters is a 26-year-old librarian. She studied English Literature at the University of Bath before getting a job at the local library. She didn’t know that two of her friends sent her name to the TV company to take part in The Pretenders. ‘When someone from the company called me, I thought it was a joke,’ said Jessica. ‘First of all, I said ‘no’, in the end my friends and my family persuaded 1 me and I agreed.’

Jessica had four weeks to turn from a quiet, shy librarian into a confident TV reporter. At the end of the month she had to interview the Minister of Education. It was her test.

An experienced political journalist, Adam Bowles, had to transform Jessica into a professional. He wasn’t very optimistic when he met her. ‘Jessica needs to be a lot harder, even aggressive. She is much too sweet and shy’, said Adam. ‘Politicians will eat her alive.’ They had just 28 days to teach her how to interview people, how to be confident, how to speak clearly.

Jessica was terrified at the beginning. She watched a lot of live interviews with politicians. Adam made her read the political sections of all the newspapers. It was boring for her and she felt exhausted. Later as soon as she began making progress, she felt more relaxed.

During the interview Jessica felt nervous but well-prepared as she had done much research and had practised a lot. ‘When it was all over came the worst part, I had to wait while the judges decided which of us they thought wasn’ t a professional’. The judges gave their verdict: they were all professional reporters.

For Jessica it was a great experience and she was pleased how she did it, but actually she doesn’t feel like changing her work.

1 to persuade убедить

2. The Pretenders is a famous TV programme. Read aloud the extract about it.

3. How did Jessica get to the programme?

4. Was it an exciting and useful experience for Jessica? Why (not)?

II. Listen to three people talking about their favourite countries and answer the questions below.

1. What country does the first speaker like most?

2. What makes Italy a favourite place for the second speaker?

3. Why does the third speaker like Argentina?

III. Let’s talk about national character and stereotypes.

№ 23

I. 1. Read the article and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.

Mi Luna

Mi Luna is a restaurant in the Rice Village. The atmosphere is lively, and the food is delicious. It is a Spanish cuisine restaurant that you will soon consider one of your favourite restaurants.

There are many reasons why this restaurant is special. One is that they make a wonderful dish called Pulpo con Patatas . It’s a delicious Spanish seafood dish which has the following ingredients: octopus, potatoes, salt, olive oil, and chilepiquin 1 . (Chilepiquin is a special kind of chili that looks like red powder and is very hot.)

Another reason is the place itself. Once you are in the restaurant, you feel a Spanish atmosphere; it is painted with the classical colours that are used in Spain — red, yellow, white, and black. The way this place is decorated is really very impressive. On the walls, there are photos of Spanish bullfighters, taken at the perfect moments of their performances.

On one of the walls, you can enjoy a photo of the famous classical Spanish dance called Flamenco 2 . In it, the dancers are wearing the traditional clothes, and the lady has in her hands the most famous Spanish musical instrument called castanets 3 .

The service is pleasant, caring and quick. It makes you want to come back. The waiters just keep looking at your table to find out if you need something. If they see an empty glass, they immediately ask you if you want something else to drink. At all time, they are friendly and ready to clear all the used dishes from your table. They are always smiling because they are trying to make you feel comfortable and happy. They know each dish, so they are able to explain it to you.

On their menu, they serve a large variety of foods, and there is a section on the menu that I like most. In Spain, these dishes are called tapas 4 . Tapas or appetizers are dishes that have a small amount of food. In this way you will be able to try a lot of different Spanish dishes.

By the time you leave Mi Luna , you are sure to be entirely satisfied and have very good memories of the visit. It is a great place for any occasion, but it is very busy, so don’t forget to book a table first.

1 chilepiquin [ˈtʃɪlɪˈpiːkiːn] пикин (сортгорячегоперцачили)

2 Flamenco

3 castanets [ ˌkæstəˈnets]

4 tapas [ˈtæːpəs]

  1. The service in Mi Luna is very good. Read aloud the extract which says about it.

3. What makes Mi Luna look very Spanish?

4. What makes Mi Luna a very pleasant place to visit?

II. Listen to the conversation between two friends and answer the questions below..

1. Why doesn’t Margaret like her new job?

2. What problem does Peter have?

3. What piece of advice does Margaret give to her friend?

III. Let’s talk about youth and society.

№ 24

I. 1. Read the article and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.

WE ARE YOUNGER THAN WE EVER WERE

If you belong to the older generation, Elderhostel is a good place to live.

Elderhostel , founded in 1975, is the world’s largest educational and travel organisation for older adults. Its aim is to excite people’s minds and enrich people’s lives promoting and encouraging different activities among the older generation. There are no examinations or marks. All that you need, in order to enroll on a programme, is enquiring mind 1 and an adventurous spirit. Also, of course, you need to believe that learning and discovery continue all your life. There are expert instructors and experienced group leaders for field trips and cultural excursions.

Elderhostel offers a large number of programmes in a huge variety of areas. Amongst other things, it provides simple, on-line information on activities and services. First of all, there are traditional programmes. Here, people study ancient history, literature, and art, and can learn about different cultures, modern people and issues.

Also, Elderhostel believes that physical activity helps people to keep a positive self-image and contributes to the sense of well-being both mental and physical. Many programmes have keep-fit equipment and a large number of social and cultural events take place there, as well as sporting activities. Regular physical activity can prevent many common illnesses, such as high blood pressure and asthma and it helps people who already have such illnesses. Alongside the usual sports like swimming, hockey and cricket, bowling and tennis, you will find “Dog Clubs” and “Flying Clubs”. Then there is a group of adventure programmes involving activities like hiking, kayaking 2 , biking and studying whales.

There are also programmes which give people the chance to help communities in different ways, such as protecting endangered species, tutoring school children and building affordable housing.

Finally, there are programmes which take place aboard a boat, anywhere from Antarctic to the Mississippi River.

The word ‘old’ has a very different and very positive meaning in Elderhostel !

1 enquiring mind [ɪnˈkwaəɪrɪŋ maɪnd] пытливый, проницательныйум

2 a kayak [ˈkaɪæk] каяк (эскимосскаялодка)

2. What kind of organisation is Elderhostel ? Read aloud the extract which says about it.

3. What activities does Elderhostel offer?

4. Why does the word ‘old’ have a positive meaning in Elderhostel ?

II. Listen to the three people speaking about how they met their partners and answer the questions below.

1. Why was the first speaker surprised?

2. When did the second speaker ask the girl out?

3. Why did the third speaker think that the girl was awful when they first met?

III. Let’s talk about education.

№ 25

I. 1. Read the article and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.

QUALITY OF COMMUNICATION

The Internet nowadays is like a huge city full of many different kinds of places and people. As in a real city, there are certain places which are suitable for youngsters and others which need to be avoided.

The Internet neither belongs to nor is controlled by any one person, organization or government. It gives all of us the opportunity to create materials for others to see. On the other hand, as in ordinary life, there are those who might use it for illegal purposes. The freedom of the Net offers exciting opportunities for youngsters and, by being aware of the possible dangers and taking steps to avoid them, they can happily explore that online world in safety.

The Internet has enabled and advanced new forms of human interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking. Common sense will certainly help children to use the Internet safely. It is preferable, for example, for parents to get to know who their children are meeting online and make sure they never give out personal information about themselves. Although it is an excellent tool for learning, playing and communicating with others, youngsters should not be allowed to become so involved that they forget other activities important to their development. How often do we hear of youngsters spending all their free time in front of the computer, isolating themselves from other people their age? Computers are admirable tools that improve the quality of life, but when used sensibly. Steve Jobs said: “Technology is nothing. What’s important is that you have a faith in people, that they’re basically good and smart, and if you give them tools, they’ll do wonderful things with them”. Obviously, surfing as a family activity is the best solution, so that any problems that are found can be discussed together.

Parents need to think about safety issues and agree on a set of rules. Just as youngsters are given instructions on road safety, they also need to be instructed on how to travel safely along that superhighway.

2. The author says that the Internet offers exciting opportunities for youngsters. Find this extract and read it aloud.

3. What is surfing the Internet compared to?

4. Why is it important to use the Internet sensibly?

II. Listen to three people speaking about their work-life balance and answer the questions below.

1. What does the first speaker complain about?

2. How has the life style of the second speaker changed?

3. What does the third speaker think about his way of life and the typical Japanese work-life balance?

III. Let’s talk about tourism.

The Russian Federation

The Russian Federation is the largest country in the world. It occupies about one-seventh of the earth"s surface. It covers the eastern part of Europe and the northern part of Asia. Its total area is about 17 million square kilometres. The country is washed by 12 seas of 3 oceans:the Pacific, the Arctic and the Atlantic. In the south Russia borders on China, Mongolia, Korea, Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan. In the west it borders on Norway, Finland, the Baltic States, Belorussia, the Ukraine. It also has a sea-borders with the USA.

There is hardly a country in the world where such a variety of scenery and vegetation can be found. We have steppes in the south, plains and forests in the midland, tundra and taiga in the nirth, highlands and deserts in the east.There are two great plains in Russia:the Great Russian Plain and the West Siberian Lowland. There are several mountains chains on the territory of the country: the Urals, the Caucasus, the Altai and others. The largest mountain chain, the Urals, separates Europe from Asia.There are over two million rivers in Russia. Europe"s biggest river, the Volga, flows into the Caspian Sea. The main Siberian rivers- the Ob, the Yenisei and the Lena- flow from the south to the north. The Amur in the Far East flows into the Pacific Ocean.

Russia is reach in beautiful lakes. The world"s deepest lake is Lake Baikal. It is much smaller than the Baltic Sea, but there is much more water in it than in the Baltic Sea. The water in the lake is so clear that if you look down you can count the stones on the bottom.Russia has one-sixth of the world"s forests. They are concentrated in the European north of the country, in Syberia and in the Far East.On the vast territory of the country there are various types of climate, from arctic in the north to subtropical in the south. In the middle of the country the climate is temperate and continental.

Russia is very reach in oil, iron ore, natural gas, copper, nickel and other mineral resources.Russia is a parliamentary republic. The Head of State is the President. The legislative powers are exercised by the Duma.The capital of Russia is Moscow. It is its largest political, scientific, cultural and industrial centre. It"s one of the oldest Russian cities.At present, the political and economic situationn in the country is rather complicated. There are a lot of problems in the national economy of the Russian Federation. The industrial production is decreasing. The prices are constantly rising, the rate of inflation is very high. People are losing their jobs because many factories and plants are going bankrupt.But in spite of the problems Russia is facing at present, there are a lot of opportunities for this country to become one of the leading countries in the world. I"m sure that we, the younger generation, can do very much to make Russia as strong and powerful as it used to be.

Российская Федерация

Российская Федерация - самая большая страна в мире. Это занимает о первом седьмом из поверхности земли. Это закрывает(охватывает) восточную часть Европы и северной части Азии. Его полная область - приблизительно 17 миллионов квадратных километров. Страна вымыта 12 морями 3 oceans:the Tихий океан, арктический и Атлантика. На юге Россия граничит с Китаем, Монголией, Кореей, Казахстаном, Джорджией(Грузией) и Азербайджаном. На западе это граничит С Норвегией, Финляндией, Балтийскими Государствами, Belorussia, Украиной. Это также имеет морскую границу со США.

Есть едва страна в мире, где такое разнообразие пейзажа и растительности может быть найдено. Мы имеем степи на юге, равнинах и лесах во внутриобластном, тундре и taiga в nirth, горной местности и пустынях на востоке. Есть два Великих равнин в Russia:the Большой Российской Равнине и Западной Сибирской Низменности. Есть несколько цепей гор на территории страны: Урал, Кавказ, Алтай и другие. Самая большая цепь горы, Урал, отделяет Европу из Азии. Есть более чем два миллиона рек в России. Самая большая река Европы, Волга, течет в Каспийское море. Главные Сибирские реки - Обь, Енисей и Лина Лена-текут с юга на север. Амур на Дальнем Востоке течет в Тихий океан.

Россия - досягаемость в красивых озерах. Всемирное самое глубокое озеро - Озеро Байкал. Это намного меньшее чем Балтийское море, но есть гораздо большее количество воды в этом чем в Балтийском море. Вода в озере настолько ясна, что, если Вы смотрите вниз Вас, может считать камни на основание. Россия имеет первый шестой из всемирных лесов. Они сконцентрированы в Eвропейце к северу от страны, в Syberia и на Дальнем Востоке. На обширной территории страны есть различные типы климата, из Арктики на севере к субтропическому на юге. В середине страны климат умеренный и континентален.

Россия - очень досягаемость в нефти(масле), железной руде, природном газе, меди, никеле и других минеральных ресурсах. Россия - парламентская республика. Глава государства - Президент. Законодательные полномочия осуществлены Думой. Капитал(столица) России Московский. Это - его самый большой политический, научный, культурный и индустриальный центр. Это - один из самых старых Российских городов. В настоящее время, политический и экономический situationn в стране довольно усложнен. Есть много проблем в народном хозяйстве Российской Федерации. Индустриальное производство уменьшается. Цены постоянно повышаются, норма(разряд) инфляции очень высока. Люди теряют их рабочие места, потому что много фабрик и заводы(растения) обанкротятся. Но несмотря на проблемы Россия сталкивается в настоящее время, есть много возможностей для этой страны, чтобы стать одной из ведущих стран в мире. Я уверен, что мы, более молодое поколение, можем делать очень, чтобы делать Россию столь же сильной и мощной, как это имело обыкновение быть.

Moscow is the capital of Russia, its political, economic, commercial and cultural centre. It was founded 8 centurys ago by Prince Yuri Dolgoruky in 1147. Gradually the city became more and more powerfull. In the 13th century Moscow was the centre of the struggle of Russian lands for the liberation from the tartar yoke. In the 16th century under Ivan the Terrible Moscow became the capital of the new united state. Though Peter the Great moved the capital to St. Petersburg in 1712; Moscow remained the heart of Russia. That"s why it became the main target of Napoleon"s attack. After the October revolution Moscow became the capital again. Now moscow is one of the largest cities in Europe. Its total area is about nine hundred square kilometres. The population of the city is over 8 million.Moscow is one of the most beautiful cities in the world. The heart of Moscow is Red Square. The Kremlin and St. Basil"s Cathedral (Vasily Blazheny) are masterpieces of encient Russian architecture. On the territory of the Kremlin you can see old cathedrals, the Palace of Congresses, the Tzar-Cannon and the Tzar-Bell, the biggest cannon and bell in the world. St. Basil"s Cathedral was built in the mid-16th century in memory of the victory over Kazan.One of the well-known Kremlin museums is the Armouty Chamber. The famous golden cap of Monomach, the first Russian imperial crown of Catherin the second and many other historical items are exhibited there.

There are more than 80 museums in Moscow. The Historical Museum, the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, the Tretyakov State Picture Gallery are world famous and the largest.Moscow is famous for its theatres. The best-known of them are Bolshoi, Maly and Art theatres.

Moscow is the seat of the Russian Parliament (the Duma) and the centre of political life of the country.

Москва - капитал(столица) России, ее политического, экономического, коммерческого и культурного центра. Это было основано 8 столетий назад принцем Юрием Долгоруки в 1147. Постепенно город стал все более мощным. В 13-ом столетии Москва была центр борьбы Российских стран для освобождения от хомута камня. В 16-ом столетии под Иваном Ужасная Москва стала капиталом(столицей) нового объединенного государства(состояния). Хотя Питер Большой перемещенный капитал(столица) к Санкт-Петербургу в 1712; Москва осталась сердцем России. Именно поэтому это стало главной целью нападения Наполеона. После революции Октября Москва стала капиталом(столицей) снова.

Теперь Москва - один из самых больших городов в Европе. Его полная область - приблизительно девятьсот квадратных километров. Население города - более чем 8 миллионов.

Москва - один из наиболее красивых городов в мире. Сердце Москвы - Красная площадь. Кремль и Собор C-Бэзила (Vasily Blazheny) - шедевры encient Российской архитектуры. На территории Кремля Вы можете видеть старые соборы, Дворец Конгрессов, Орудия царя и Звонка царя, самого большого орудия и звонка в мире. Собор C-Бэзила был построен в середине 16-ого столетия в памяти о победе по Казани.Один из известных Кремлевских музеев - Armouty Палата. Известная золотая кепка Monomach, первая Российская имперская корона Catherin второй и многих других исторических пунктов(изделий) показана там.Есть больше чем 80 музеев в Москве. Исторический Музей, Пушкин Мусевм Искусств, Государство(состояние) Tretyakov Картинная Галерея - мир, известный и самый большой.Москва известна ее театрами. Известный лучшим из них - Bolshoi, Maly и Художественные театры.Москва - место Российского Парламента (Дума) и центр политической жизни страны

The United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles. The British Isles consist of two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and about five thousands small islands. Their total area is over 244 000 square kilometres. The United Kingdom is one of the world"s smaller countries. Its population is over 57 million. About 80 percent of the population is urban. The United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Cardiff, Edinburgh and Belfast respectively. Great Britain consists of England , Scotland and Wales and does not include Northern Ireland. But in everyday speech Great Britain is used in the meaning of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The capital of the UK. is London. The British Isles are separated from the Continent by the North Sea and the British Channel. The *western coast of Great Britain is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea.

The surface of the British Isles varies very much. The north of Scotland is mountainous and is called the Highlands. The South, which has beautiful valleys and plains, is called the Lowlands. The north and west of England are mountainous, but the eastern, central and south- eastern parts of England are a vast plain. Mountains are not very high. Ben Nevis in Scotland is the highest mountain (1343 m). There are a lot of rivers iri Great Britain, but they are not very long. The Severn is the longest rive?, while the Thames is the deepest and the most important oae. The mountains, the Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters of the Gulf Stream influence the climate of the British Isles. It is mild the whole year round. The UK. is a highly developed industrial country. It produces and exports machinery, electronics, textile. One of the chief industries of the country is shipbuilding. * The UK is a constitutional monarchy with a parliament and the Queen as Head of State.

Великобритания

Великобритания Великобритании и Северной Ирландии расположена на Британских островах. Британские острова состоят из двух больших островов, Великобритании и Ирландии, и приблизительно пять тысяч маленьких островов. Их полная область - более чем 244 000 квадратных километров. Великобритания - одна из всемирных меньших стран. Его население - более чем 57 миллионов. Приблизительно 80 процентов от населения городские. Великобритания составлена из четырех стран: Англия, Уэльс, Шотландия и Северная Ирландия. Их капиталы(столицы) Лондонские, Кардиффские, Эдинбургские и Белфастские соответственно. Великобритания состоит из Англии, Шотландии и Уэльса и не включает Северную Ирландию. Но в каждодневной речи Великобритания используется в значении Великобритании Великобритании и Северной Ирландии. Капитал(столица) ВЕЛИКОБРИТАНИИ. Является Лондонским. Британские острова отделены от Континента Северным морем и Британским Каналом. *western побережье Великобритании вымыто Атлантическим океаном и Ирландским морем.

Поверхность Британских островов изменяется очень. Север Шотландии громаден и называется Горной местностью. Юг, который имеет красивые долины и равнины, называется Среднешотландской низменностью. К северу и к западу от Англии громаден, но восточен, центральн и южный - восточные части Англии - обширная равнина. Горы - не очень высоки. Бен-Невис в Шотландии - самая высокая гора (1343 m). Есть много рек iri Великобритания, но они - не очень длинны. Северн самый длинный rive?, в то время как Темза самая глубокая и наиболее важна oae. Горы, Атлантический океан и теплые воды Гольфстрима влияют на климат Британских островов. Это умеренно целый год вокруг. ВЕЛИКОБРИТАНИЯ. Является высоко развитой индустриальной страной. Это производит и экспортирует машины, электронику, ткань. Одна из главных отраслей промышленности страны - судостроение. * ВЕЛИКОБРИТАНИЯ - конституционная монархия с парламентом и Королевой как Глава государства.

Билет 1.

1.Топик «Я- моя биография»

2.

My Friend

I have a lot of friends. Most of them are my former schoolmates. But my bosom friend is Lena. She is 16. Lena isn"t very tall, but she is pretty in her own way.

She has red curly hair and a turn-up nose. Lena wears spectacles and when spring comes there are plenty of freckles on her cheeks, forehead and nose. But all that doesn"t make her plain or ugly. I like Lena because she is well-bred, jolly and kind.

She does well at school though she has an unbreakable rule: never to study at night no matter how many written reviews are coming in the morning. She is also fond of reading plain books, and Lena sometimes thinks that one book isn"t enough to read, she has two оr three books going at once. My friend has a lot of books at home, and she buys them wherever she goes.

Lena goes in for sports and she is a member of our school basket-ball team. She is terribly quick and strong .

It"s a pleasure to watch her playing basket-ball: while others are hopping about in the air she always gets under their feet and grabs the ball. I don"t like people who are bored at everything and who never make the slightest effort to be pleasant. That"s why my friend is Lena, the most amusing person in the world. She thinks everything is funny - even flunking an exam.

Lena is a sunny soul by nature and always takes the slightest excuse to be amused. My friend has an imagination and her own style. Usually she writes nice compositions and once even won short-story contest that our school wallpaper holds every year.

Lena and me are good friends. We help each other a lot and try not to quarrel. But when sometimes it comes to quarrelling we try to make it up at once.

Questions:

    How old is Lena?

2. Does she wear spectacles?
3. Does she do well at school?
4. What unbreakable rule has she?

5. What books is she fond of reading?

6. Does Lena go in for sports?

7. Is she a member of the school basket-ball team?

3.Выполните грамматические задания.

    Is this your ... friend?” - “No, it isn’t my ... friend, it is…my sister”.

    The woman liked the story. (Женщине понравилась история.)

    the result/the football match

4. Nick is (happier, the happiest) boy that I know.

5. I … (learn/have learnt/have been learning) Spanish since December. (Я изучаю испанский язык с декабря .)

6. They rarely drive to (their/them/theirs) office. They live near (it’s/it/its).

7. The bus moved very … (slow/slowly) and I arrived home late.

8. My office is … (near/near to/near with) the stadium.

9. John was tired after work.

10. There are 9 planets in the Solar system.

Билет 2.

    Топик «Моя семья»

    .

My Hobby

Tastes differ. Different people like different things, different people have different hobbies.

I go in for sports, I like to play tennis. I go to play tennis every day. Sport is very important part of our life. Many people go in for sports, they jogging, walking, swimming, skating, skiing, train themselves in clubs and different sections.

Physical training is an important subject at school. Pupils play volleyball, football, basketball. I have been playing tennis for 5 years. Tennis became very popular now. I take part in different competitions.

To be in a good shape I"m jogging every morning and do my morning exercises. Everyone should do all he can to stay healthy and choose the sport he is interested in. I do not understand people who say that they like sport, but they only watch sport on TV.

If one goes in for sports he feels much better, looks much better, sleeps much better. Your physical appearance will change too. You will be slimmer and trimmer. And what is even more important you will not get sick often.

Why do I go in for sports? Because I think that it is very important for a man to be strong and well-built. Sport is not for weak, because, you have to learn how to lose, and it"s not easy. My favourite proverb says: "A sound mind in sound body".

Questions:

    What is his hobby?
    2. What sports does he go in for?

    3. Does he like summer or winter sports?

    4. What does it mean to be healthy?

    5. Why did he choose tennis?

    6. What is his favourite proverb?

3. Выполните грамматические задания .

    I have ... sister. My ... sister is ... teacher. My sister’s ... husband is ... pilot.

    The white mouse is in the box. (Белая мышь находится в коробке.)

    the car/Mike parents

    Of the six cars, I like the silver one (better, best).

5. We … (were/have been/are) to France many times. (Мы были во Франции много раз.)

6. Look at (me/ mine/my) new watch. Do you like (it/them/its)?

7. Miss Jones ran … (quick/quickly) to the chemist’s.

8. Kevin often goes abroad … (in/on/for) business.

9. We live in a small town.

10. There are 7 days in a week.

Билет 3 .

    Топик «Внешность»

My Week-day

My week-days didn"t differ much one from another. I went to school six days a week. That"s why, I had to wake up at 7 o"clock every morning. Sometimes I wanted to stay in bed for some more time but my mother always insisted on my getting up.

I put on my bathrobe and slippers and unwillingly went to the bathroom. A cold shower made me feel not so sleepy, then I dried myself on a towel and hurried to the bedroom. I switched on a TV-set, it was just the time for a cartoon.

You may ask me why I didn"t do my morning exercises. From time to time, when I saw smiling slim girls on TV briskly doing their exercises to music, I swore I should get up earlier and do my morning exercises every day, but it didn"t last long and soon 1 forgot about it. Then I did my bed, dressed myself and had my breakfast.

At a quarter to eight I rushed to school, it usually took me 10 minutes to get there. My classes began at 8 o"clock, and every day I had seven or eight lessons.

At 3 o"clock the classes were over, and I went home. After dinner, I did some work about the house (washed dishes, swept the floor, went shopping) and sat down to my lessons. I spent a great deal of time on them.

At 8 o"clock all my textbooks and notebooks were put into a bag, and I could watch TV or read a book, look through papers and magazines. Sometimes, when my friend called for me we went for a walk.

At 11 o"clock, tired after a long working day, I went to bed and in some minutes fell asleep.

Questions:

    When did I have to wake up when I went to school?

2. When did I go to the bathroom?
3. When did I hurry to my bedroom?

4. At what time did I rush to school?

5. How many lessons did I have every day?

6. Did I do some work about the house?

7. What did I do in the evening?

8. When did I go to bed?

3.Выполните грамматические задания .

    I have …no ... car.

    The policeman is an American. (Полицейский – американец.)

    the garden/our neighbors

4. Jane’s notebook is (cheaper, the cheapest) than mine

5. There … (were/have been/are) too many people at the party yesterday. (Вчера на вечеринке было слишком много людей .)

6. Do you like (you/your/yours) new car? Oh, (it’s/it/its) has never let me down yet.

7. I’m afraid I wrote the test very … (bad/badly).

8. All the notices in the streets were … (on/by/in) French.

9. Summer has started at last.

10. There are 12 months in a year.

Билет 4.

    Топик « Характер »

    Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы.

Foreign Languages in Our Life

Learning a foreign language isn"t an easy thing. Nowadays it"s especially important to know foreign languages.

Some people learn languages because they need them for their work, others travel abroad, for the third studying foreign languages is a hobby. Everyone, who knows foreign languages can speak to people from other countries, read foreign authors in the original, which makes your outlook wider.

I study English. It"s a long and slow process that takes a lot of time and efforts. Over 300 million people speak it is as a mother tongue.

The native speakers of English live in Great Britain, the United States of America, Australia and New Zealand. English is one of the official languages of the United Nations Organization and other political organizations.

The great German poet Goethe once said, «He, who knows no foreign language, doesn"t know his own one ». That"s why in order to understand oneself and environment one has to learn foreign languages.

I think, that to know English today is absolutely necessary for every educated man, for every good specialist.

Questions:

1 .Is it an easy thing to learn a foreign language?
2. Why do people learn foreign languages?
3. Do you know any foreign language?
4. Where do the native speakers of English live?
5. What can you say about the English language?

3. Выполните грамматические задания .

    She has got ... terrible … headache.

    His wife is a secretary. (Его жена – секретарь.)

    the children / Don and Mary

4. This is (more delicious, the most delicious) cheese-cake I have ever had!

5. Paul … (was writing/wrote/has written) two novels last year. (Павел написал два романа в прошлом году.)

6. This tape recorder of (her/hers/she) is always out of order. - But so is (you/your/yourself).

7. She drives the car quite … (good/well).

8. Sorry. I took your bag … (on/for/by) mistake.

9. They have already left.

10. There are 5 fingers on one hand.

Билет 5.

    Топик «Мой лучший друг»

    Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы.

My Day off

I go to school five days a week, so I have two days off - Saturday and Sunday (I"m lucky, because some other pupils have the only one day off). During the week I am very busy, so I like to have a rest on weekend.

I am not an early riser and it is a rare Saturday or Sunday when I get up before 9 o"clock. I enjoy staying in bed, when 1 don"t have to hurry anywhere. We have late breakfast at 10 and watch TV.

Usually we have something tasty: meat salad, fried potatoes, chicken, cake or pie. If the weather is fine, I usually do not stay indoors, I and my dog go outside. Often we go to the park and play there. If the weather is rainy and gloomy, I stay at home and watch TV, listen to the music, read, the books.

After dinner we go visit our grandparents or relatives, or just simply take a nap. Sometimes when my friends call me we go roller - blading near the Opera theatre .

I like roller - blading very much, I think it is a lot of fun. In the evenings I like to watch video and music programs. There is a big armchair in my room right beside the lamp with blue shade. If it is cold I like to sit there with cup of coffee and read.

Sometimes I do something special on weekends: go to an art exhibition, to the theatre, to the concert. I always go to bed late on Sundays, and Monday morning is the nastiest thing through all the week.

I like weekends very much, because I can rest and gain some energy for the next week.

Questions:

    How many day offs do you have?
    2. When do you get up on Sunday?
    3. What do you usually do during weekends?
    4. Do you spend a lot of time with your friends?
    5. Do you watch TV a lot?
    6. What time do you go to bed?

3. Выполните грамматические задания .

1. They have ... dog and two ... cats.

2. This is a sandwich with butter and cheese. (Это бутерброд с маслом и сыром.)

3. the eyes/the doll

4. This bookcase is (more beautiful, the most beautiful) than that one.

5. Every evening Jane … (work/works/have worked) in a café as a waitress. (Каждый вечер Джейн работает в кафе официанткой .)

6 . (Their/Theirs/ Them) knowledge of French is not much more superior to (we/our/ours).

7. Dad looked at me … (angry/angrily).

8. Shall we go … (for/on/to) a walk?

9. My parents got married in Paris.

10. There is 1 nose on the face.

Билет 6.

    Топик «Мой рабочий день ».

    Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы .

My English

Many people think that it is enough to know one language, but scientists think it is too little. The world is constantly changing, borders between countries and states are opening, and each of us can visit any country we like. This is one of the arguments in favour of studying foreign languages. In addition, the study of languages develops your attention and memory, broadens your mind, and you feel more educated.

I don"t think I am a good language learner because I am lazy but I like English very much. Of course, it is really great to find out about English people, cities and events. At our lessons we read interesting books, translate from English intо Russian, learn new words. We speak about interesting people.

I understand that English teaches me to think, to speak, it helps me to find friends, but learning English is very difficult for me and takes me so much time and patience. Our English teacher is very good and kind. It is awful for me to learn English poems and songs by heart, of course, but I try. I think that English will help me in my future profession.

Questions:

    What do many people think about foreign languages?

    The world is constantly changing, borders between countries and states are opening, are they?

    What does the study of languages develop?

    What do we do at our lessons ?

    Will English help me in my future profession?

    Выполните грамматические задания .

    My ... cousin says he is going to be ... manager one ... day.

    He is my favourite actor. (Он – мой любимый актер.)

    the top/the hill

4. Do you feel (better, the best) today than yesterday?

5. It … (is raining/rains/will rain) heavily tomorrow. (Завтра будет сильный дождь .)

6. He can live without (me/my/mine) help but not without (them/their/theirs).

7. Mr. Potter was … (deep/deeply) touched by our greetings.

8. She has been in Africa … February. (in, on, at, for, since, during).

9. She can lose her temper easily.

10. There is no place like home.

Билет 7.

    Топик «Мой выходной день ».

    Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы.

Introducing Myself

There is a saying that if you want something to be done well, do it yourself. So, I am following this wise saying and would like to introduce myself.

My first name is Sergey, my family name is Kravenko and my second name is Yurievich.

But in the beginning, I would like to represent my family and parents. Actually my family isn"t large. My family consists of my father, mother, sister and cat Boris.

My father"s name is Yuri. He is 41 years, but he looks much younger. He is a businessman. My dad is a well-educated and well-read person; he has experiences in many fields. That is why it is always interesting to communicate with him, he usually tells many exciting stories, of course, if he has free time.

And my mother is 37. Her name is Natalia. She is a good-looking, blond woman. She has large green eyes. I admire her character. She is an optimist; she is full of energy and enthusiasm. I really adore her sense of humour. She is a housewife. It takes her much time and power to take care of our home. But I can assure, she copes with her job very well. Besides, both my farther and I help her with the housework. For example, I wash dishes, plates, sometimes go shopping and so on.

Now, I think, it is time to speak about myself. My name is Sergey, but my friends call me Seriy. I am 15.

I am tall and not bad built. I have an oval face and large green eyes. Speaking about my character, I can say that I"m friendly, kind, generous and honest. I do not like falsehood. I have my own likes and dislikes. I am modest and sometimes shy, but do not advice someone tricking or kidding me. But in spite of all these characters, I can keep secrets; I never let my friends down. I usually say, what I think, that is why people around me often take offence. For me it is very difficult to cope with people who have such features of character as egoism and dishonesty.


Questions:

    What is my first name?

2. What is my surname name?
3 . Is my family large?
4 . What are my father"s and my mother"s names?
5 . How old are my parents?
6 . What is my father by profession?
7 . How old am I?

3. Выполните грамматические задания .

1. …Smiths have …dog and …cat.

2. My friend is a student. ( Мой друг - студент .)

3. the name/your daughter

4. I think my cat is (prettier, the prettiest) of all the cats in the world.

5. She … (is waiting/waits/has been waiting) for the bus for one hour. (Она ждет автобус целый час .)

6. She has not read a line of (you/your/yours), how can she criticize (you/your/yours) books?

7. We … (hard/hardly) know each other.

8. Dan has had his design studio … several years.(in, on, at, for, since, during).

9. The party will start in time.

10. Where there is love there is life.

Билет 8 .

    Топик «Хобби».

    Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы.

My Friend

My best friends name " s Misha . We made friends a few years ago. We are of the same age. We live in the same block of flats, so we see each other almost every day.

Misha is a tall slender boy. He has got dark hair, large dark eyes, a straight nose, and thin lips. He wears spectacles. Misha is a nice guy. He is very honest and just, understanding and kind.

I trust him a lot, and I"m sure that I can rely on him in any situation. He never lets people down. Misha is only 16 but he is very responsible - he finishes whatever he starts. He"s got only one shortcoming. He is a bit stubborn; nevertheless he is pleasant to deal with.

Misha"s an only child and his parents love him very much. His father is a lawyer. He is the most brilliant man I"ve ever met. He knows everything there is to know about the law. His mother is a music teacher. No wonder Michael is so talented. He"s got a very good ear for music. He likes jazz and plays the piano very well.

We spend a lot of time together. We often watch video or listen to music. Sometimes we go to theatre, or walk around the centre of the city, visiting small cafes, museums, art galleries, and shops.

We talk for hours about all sorts of things (politics, love, teachers, and girls). We discuss films, television programmes, books.

I never quarrel with Misha. But if there is some misunderstanding between us we try to make peace as soon as possible. What I like best about him is that he is always willing to help and share his knowledge, thoughts, and feelings. I respect him for his fairness, strong will, intellect, and modesty.

I miss Misha when we don"t see each other for a long time. Without him I would feel lonely and uncomfortable. Our friendship helps me feel strong and sure of myself.

Questions:

    Where does Misha live?

    How old is he?

    Misha"s an only child, isn’t he?

    Does Michael like jazz and play the piano or rock and play the guitar?

    What do I like best about him?

3. Выполните грамматические задания .

    She was …first woman to swim across … English Channel.

    There is a big fish in the river. (В реке большая рыба.)

    the name/this city

4. Steve Jobs is (more famous, famouser) than Stephen Wozniak.

5. Ouch! I … (cut/am cutting/have cut) my finger! (Ой ! Я порезал палец !)

6. The clock has stopped.(Something/ Anything\ Someone) may be wrong with (it’s/it/its) spring.

7. The Internet is … (wide/widely) used all over the world.

8. The fishing season is to start … a couple of weeks. (in, on, at, for, since, during).

9. The dogs are sleeping.

10. There is no bad weather, there are bad clothes.

Билет 9.

    Топик « Мой английский ».

    Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы.

About Myself

It is both pleasant and a bit difficult to speak about myself. It is pleasant because every person enjoys speaking about his or her interests, likes or dislikes. But at the same time it is difficult because to study a person, especially yourself, it is a great journey, not a little walk.

Speaking about my character I"d like first of all to define what character is. These are some qualities that make a person different from others. People often say about me that I am not like others. I don"t think that I am something special. When candles are out all cats are grey. But of course if you come closer and turn on the light you can see that some features are typical to me.

But to cut the long story short I think I am a good humoured, very responsible, hard working and emotional person. I like creativity and appreciate this trait in others. I don"t like to he and I feel when others do. I try not to be late and I hate when others don"t come on time. I prefer to associate with clever and polite people. It is very annoying when somebody whom I trust turns out to be unreliable.

But I try to treat other people so as I want them to treat me. I see the man whom I am looking for also as a person with a strong and sound body and mind. The person, who is interesting to talk to, whom I can trust and rely on.

As for my interests I am fond of psychology in the sphere of dealing with people and the questions of how to form your thoughts in the most favourable way. I adore travelling, seeing other people, their traditions, customs, to get acquainted with their culture, going sightseeing. Besides I like different kinds of music, I like music with rhythm you can dance to.

Questions:

    Why is it both pleasant and a bit difficult to speak about oneself?
    2. What can you tell about your character?
    3. What are you fond of doing?
    4. What do you hate that other people do?
    5. How do you try to treat other people?
    6. What are your interests and hobbies?

3.Выполните грамматические задания .

1.Could you give me … information I asked for in… my letter?

2. The bookshelf is between the mirror and the sofa. (Книжная полка находится между зеркалом и диваном.)

3. the magazine/today

4. This week the weather is (hotter, more hot) than last week.

5. Kate … (is sunbathing/has been sunbathing/has sunbathed) now. (Катя сейчас загорает .)

6. (Who\What\ Why) colour is the shirt? It is so far that I can’t see (it’s/its/it) colour.

7. Hurry up, kids! It’s … (near/nearly) midnight.

8. The kids worked on a farm … their summer holidays. (in, on, at, for, since, during).

9. The umbrella was broken.

10. There are plenty of other fish in the sea.

Билет 10.

    Топик «Изучение иностранных языков».

    Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы.

My Daily Routine

As a rule, I get up at half past six. I put on my dressing-gown, go into bathroom and turn on the bath taps. Good health is better than wealth, so I do my morning exercises. I get breakfast at seven-thirty and listen to the news over the radio.

I like to begin the day well, so my breakfast is always a good one. For breakfast I usually have hard-boiled eggs or an omelette , bread and butter, tea or coffee; I read my newspaper with my last cup of coffee before I leave home.

Then, I say "Good-bye" to my mother, take my school-bag and go to school. I don"t live far from my school, so it doesn"t take me long to get there. The lessons start at half past eight. Each lesson lasts for 45 minutes. The classes are over at two o"clock.

I come back home, have dinner, wash up and go shopping. I buy foodstuffs for the family. Coming back I begin to clean the house and get the vegetables ready for supper. We have supper at seven. I do my homework for the next day. It usually takes me several hours to prepare well for the lessons.

In the evening, I always try to spend at least an hour at the piano. As a rule my parents and I sit and talk, watch a film on TV, read newspapers and magazines. Sometimes, we go to the cinema or to the theatre. Once or twice a month, I visit exhibitions in my home town.

I go to bed at about eleven o"clock, but my parents like to sit up late and write letters or read.

Questions:

    When do you get up as a rule?

2. Why do you do your morning exercises?
3. What do you have for breakfast?

4. How long does each lesson last?

5. When do you begin to clean the house?

3. Выполните грамматические задания.

1.war is terrible thing .

2. I can see a sheep in the field. (Я вижу овечку в поле.)

3. the video camera/Don

4. Our new house is (more expensive, expensiver) than the old one.

5. I really … (enjoy/enjoyed/am enjoying) my last holiday in Venice. (Мне очень понравился мой последний отпуск в Венеции.)

6. Why are (you/your/yours) sitting here? It is not (you/your/yours) desk.

7. The police officer examined the car … (close/closely).

8. My car will be ready … 3 days. (in, on, at, for, since, during).

9. He always gives money to homeless children.

10. There are two sides to every question.

Дата публикации: 03.11.2015

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Муниципальное Общеобразовательное Учреждение «Елизаветинская средняя общеобразовательная школа Адамовского района Оренбургской области»

Экзаменационные билеты по английскому языку с рекомендациями

Составил: учитель английского языка Кузьмин Сергей Александрович

2007/2008 учебный год

Билеты по английскому языку за курс 11 класса…………….3-4

Билет 1 (1)………………………………………………………...5

Билет 1 (2)………………………………………………………...6

Билет 1 (3)………………………………………………………...7

Билет 2 (1)………………………………………………………...8

Билет 2 (2)………………………………………………………...9

Билет 2 (3)……………………………………………………… .10

Билет 3 (1)………………………………………………………..11

Билет 3 (2)………………………………………………………..12

Билет 3 (3)………………………………………………………..13

Билет 4 (1)………………………………………………………..14

Билет 4 (2)………………………………………………………..15

Билет 4 (3)………………………………………………………..16

Билет 5 (1)………………………………………………………..17

Билет 5 (2)………………………………………………………..18

Билет 5(3)………………………………………………………...19

Билет 6 (1)………………………………………………………..20

Билет 6 (2)………………………………………………………..21

Билет 6 (3)………………………………………………………..22

Билет 7 (1)………………………………………………………..23

Билет 7 (2)………………………………………………………..24

Билет 7 (3)………………………………………………………..25

Билет 8 (1)………………………………………………………..26

Билет 8 (2)………………………………………………………..27

Билет 8 (3)………………………………………………………..28

Билет 9 (1)………………………………………………………..29

Билет 9 (2)………………………………………………………..30

Билет 9 (3)………………………………………………………..31

Билет 10 (1)………………………………………………………32

Билет 10 (2)………………………………………………………33

Билет 10 (3)………………………………………………………34

Билет 11 (1)………………………………………………………35

Билет 11 (2)…………………………………………………… . 36

Билет 11 (3)………………………………………………………37

Билет 12 (1)………………………………………………………38

Билет 12 (2)………………………………………………………39

Билет 12 (3)………………………………………………………40

Билет 13 (1)………………………………………………………41

Билет 13 (2)………………………………………………………42

Билет 13 (3)………………………………………………………43

Билет 14 (1)………………………………………………………44

Билет 14 (2)………………………………………………………45

Билет 14 (3)………………………………………………………46

Билет 15 (1)………………………………………………………47

Билет 15 (2)………………………………………………………48

Билет 15 (3)………………………………………………………49

Список литературы…………………………………………… 50

Список литературы

1. Журина Т.И. Английский язык. Тематический сборник для подготовки к экзамену по английскому языку за курс основной школы.- М.: Дрофа, 2000

2. Кузовлев В.П. и др. Английский язык. Учебник для 7 класса общеобразовательных учреждений.- М.: Просвещение, 2003

3. Кузовлев В.П. и др. Счастливый английский. Учебник для 7 класса общеобразовательных учреждений. - М.: Просвещение, 2000

4. Кузовлев В.П. и др. Английский язык. Учебник для 8 класса общеобразовательных учреждений.- М.: Просвещение, 2001

5. Кузовлев В.П. и др. Английский язык. Учебник для 9 класса общеобразовательных учреждений.- М.: Просвещение, 2000

6. Кузовлев В.П. и др. Английский язык. Учебник для 10-11 классов общеобразовательных учреждений.- М.: Просвещение, 2003

7. Немыкина А.И., Ракова К.И. 120 устных тем по английскому языку. 5-11 класс.- Киров: ГИППВ, 1997

8. Островский Б.С. Английский язык. Факультативный курс.- М.:

Просвещение, 1992

9. Ощепкова 0.0., Шустилова И.И. О Британии вкратце.- М.: Лист,

10. Тихонов А.А. Английский язык. Интенсив.-М.: ВАКО, 2004

Билеты для сдачи экзамена по английскому языку за курс полной (средней) общей школы

    Расскажите о роли спорта в жизни людей.

    Обсудите в беседе с преподавателем, каким видом транспорта лучше путешествовать: самолетом, поездом или автобусом. Поинтересуйтесь мнением преподавателя и аргументируйте свою точку зрения.

    Прочитайте текст и кратко изложите его основное содержание.

    Расскажите о себе и своих увлечениях.

3.Обсудите в беседе с преподавателем, где приятней и интересней отдыхать: у моря, в горах или в деревне. Поинтересуйтесь мнением преподавателя и аргументируйте свою точку зрения.

Билет №3

    Прочитайте текст и кратко изложите его основное содержание.

    Расскажите о стране изучаемого языка.

3. Обсудите в беседе с преподавателем, является ли книга в наше время лучшим подарком и какие подарки предпочитают дети различного возраста. Поинтересуйтесь мнением преподавателя и аргументируйте свою точку зрения.

    Прочитайте текст и кратко изложите его основное содержание.

    Расскажите о роли СМИ в обществе.

    Обсудите в беседе с преподавателем, как лучше использовать полученный школой грант: купить компьютер, музыкальный центр или книги в школьную библиотеку. Поинтересуйтесь мнением преподавателя и аргументируйте свою точку зрения.

    Прочитайте текст и кратко изложите его основное содержание.

    Расскажите о том, что может привлечь иностранца в вашей стране.

    Обсудите в беседе с преподавателем, нужна ли школьная форма. Поинтересуйтесь мнением преподавателя и аргументируйте свою точку зрения.

    Прочитайте текст и кратко изложите его основное содержание.

    Расскажите об известном деятеле науки или искусства в вашей стране или стране изучаемого языка.

    Обсудите в беседе с преподавателем, какие хобби бывают у людей и что увлекательней: заниматься фотографией, спортом или коллекционированием. Поинтересуйтесь мнением преподавателя и аргументируйте свою точку зрения.

    Прочитайте текст и кратко изложите его основное содержание.

    Расскажите о заинтересовавшем вас празднике страны изучаемого языка.

    Обсудите в беседе с преподавателем, все ли виды спорта полезны для здоровья. Поинтересуйтесь мнением преподавателя и аргументируйте свою точку зрения.

    Прочитайте текст и кратко изложите его основное содержание.

    Расскажите, как вы проводите свое свободное время.

    Обсудите в беседе с преподавателем, зачем люди изучают иностранные языки. Поинтересуйтесь мнением преподавателя и аргументируйте свою точку зрения.

    Прочитайте текст и кратко изложите его основное содержание.

    Расскажите об экологических проблемах в мире и в вашей стране.

    Обсудите в беседе с преподавателем, что молодежь предпочитает смотреть по ТВ: новости, музыкальные передачи, сериалы, художественные фильмы. Поинтересуйтесь мнением преподавателя и аргументируйте свою точку зрения.

Билет №10

    Прочитайте текст и кратко изложите его основное содержание.

    Расскажите о проблемах молодежи.

Билет №11

    Прочитайте текст и кратко изложите его основное содержание.

    Расскажите о системах образования в вашей стране и стране изучаемого языка и о выборе профессии.

    Обсудите в беседе с преподавателем, какие газеты и журналы популярны у молодежи. Поинтересуйтесь мнением преподавателя и аргументируйте свою точку зрения.

Билет №12

    Прочитайте текст и кратко изложите его основное содержание.

    Расскажите о молодежной культуре.

    Обсудите в беседе с преподавателем, почему семья и семейные отношения важны для человека. Поинтересуйтесь мнением преподавателя и аргументируйте свою точку зрения.

Билет № 13

    Прочитайте текст и кратко изложите его основное содержание.

    Расскажите о здоровом образе жизни.

    Обсудите в беседе с преподавателем, какие достопримечательности США было бы увидеть своими глазами. Поинтересуйтесь мнением преподавателя и аргументируйте свою точку зрения.

Билет №14

    Прочитайте текст и кратко изложите его основное содержание.

    Расскажите о роли английского языка в жизни людей.

    Обсудите в беседе с преподавателем, почему между родителями и подростками не всегда есть полное понимание. Поинтересуйтесь мнением преподавателя и аргументируйте свою точку зрения.

Билет №15

    Прочитайте текст и кратко изложите его основное содержание.

    Расскажите о кино и театре в России и в стране изучаемого языка.

    Обсудите в беседе с преподавателем, какие качества вы цените в друзьях. Поинтересуйтесь мнением преподавателя и аргументируйте свою точку зрения.

Билет 15 (3)

What shows that you are friends with...?

with this boy/girl?

I make friends with ... because we...

Для полной информации смотри: Кузовлев В.П. и др. Аглийский язык. Учебник для 7 класса общеобразовательных учреждений.- М.: Просвещение, 2003

Билет 15 (2)

Theatre & cinema in Britain, USA & Russia.

    Today many people in GB, USA & Russia are very busy, they spend all their time working, with their families & friends. Some of them don"t go to cinema, theatre, don"t read books. But there is a group of people who think that theatre & cinema are very important.

    The history of the cinema began in 1895 in France when the Lumiere brothers demonstrated the first film " Arrival of the train". But the capital of the film entertainment is America. In 1911 the first film studio appeared in Hollywood, in Los Angeles. First films were silent & black & white. The first colour film appeared in 1939 ("Gone with the wind"). In Russia the first film was demonstrated in 1896 in Moscow & St. Petersburg. Sound films appeared in 1920-s.

In GB film production is not so popular as in USA & Russia. When British producers want to make films they usually go to America.

3. There are many genres of films: As for me, I like… because…

I don"t like…(B 10-11 pp. 184-185).

    Cinema is also associated with different professions:

We all know the names of famous B., A., R. actors & producers: (B10-11 pp. 1180-181, Reader pp 68-69, 75-77).

    Theatre is also a popular way to spend free time. There are a lot of different theatres in A., R., & GB.: Covent Garden , The National Theatre (GB), The Bolshoi Theatre, The Sovremennik, The Lenkom (R).

    Theatrical genres are different: opera , operetta, ballet, musical & so on. I love (dislike) theatre… because… I especially prefer…(B 10-11 pp. 185,190). But I don"t have a chance to watch films & plays in the cinema & theatre very often, that"s why I watch them on TV.

5 Билет 1 (1) ARTHUR CONAN DOYLE

Arthur Conan Doyle was born in the capital of Scotland, Edinburgh. His father, Charles E. Doyle, was an artist and architect by profession, but he worked as a clerk in an office. The father died young and the Doyle family was very poor. Arthur"s mother was a very good story-teller and her fantastic stories he remembered all his life. The talent of story-telling Arthur inherited from his mother and it helped him as a writer. During his school years he read much, and he often told his school friends long and interesting stories, getting cakes and sweets.

After finishing school Conan Doyle became a student of the medical faculty m the University of Edinburgh, in his third year of studies he went as a ship"s doctor to the Arctic and after graduating from the University, he again went in a ship to Western Africa.

He began his medical practice in a small English town Southsea, where he spent eight years. Here in 1887, he published his first detective story "A Study in Scarlet". Its main characters were Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson, and they became the most popular characters of a great many of Conan Doyle"s stories. "A Scandal in Bohemia" opened a collection of detective stories under the title "The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes". The story was published in 1891 and soon after that Baker Street became the well-known address of Sherlock Holmes.

The readers asked for more and more stories about Sherlock Holmes and for two years Conan Doyle wrote them. When he had written about twenty stories with Sherlock Holmes as the main detective, he was so tired of these stories that he decided "to kill Sherlock Holmes". He wrote a story, which he named "Holmes"s Last Case" (1893). In this story Holmes was killed during a struggle with Professor Moriarty. The writer hoped that after that he could begin writing other books.

But the readers did not wish to lose their favourite character, and ten years later the famous detective appeared again.

In 1901-02 one of Conan Doyle"s best stories "The Hound of the Baskervilles" was published.

In 1891 Conan Doyle gave up his medical work and devoted all his time to his literary activity. He also travelled much. He visited Europe, the USA and Egypt. In Norway be met Jerome K. Jerome, who wrote about this fact in one of his books. Besides detective stories, Conan Doyle also wrote historical novels and war books. His two fantastic stories "The Lost World" (1912) and "The Poisoned Belt" (1913) were quite successful.

All his life Conan Doyle liked sports; he skied, played golf, and went for boxing.

He died in 1930. After his death, the famous detective Sherlock Holmes, together with his friend Dr. Watson, continued to be among the favourite characters of English literature and tourists coming to London always go to visit Baker Street to see the house where Sherlock Holmes lived.

6 Билет 1(2)

SPORTS IN BRITAIN, RUSSIA & IN MY LIFE

Sport plays a very important role in our life. It is popular with old & young people. People all over the world enjoy watching & taking part in the Olympic Games. There are also "paralympics"- competitions among disabled people. But sport can be not only professional but amateur. Every morning some of us do exercises, visit sport clubs, take part in school competitions. In fine weather schoolchildren play sports in the open air. Boys enjoy football, basketball, hockey. Girls like gymnastics, tennis, etc.

Russia & Britain have rich sport traditions.

Britain is a home of many sports- football, tennis, cricket, golf.

The British like sport- to play it & to speak about it.

Football is played professionally & at schools, stadiums. Cricket & golf are aristocratic sports. Every summer there are competitions in golf.

Tennis is associated with Wimbledon. Every June millions of people watch it at the Central Stadium or on TV.

Oxford & Cambridge are connected with boat- racing. Every March two teams go boating on the river Thames.

We must also remember about Highland Games in Scotland. Sportsmen toss the caber, put the weight, etc.

Sport is also very popular in Russia. Millions of people go to sport centers. Many sports are popular in Russia: football, hockey, figure skating, volleyball, etc. Russian sportsmen toke part in European, World & Olympic Championships. They regularly win gold, silver & bronze medals.

We must be proud of such sportsmen as: Tretyak, Korbut, Fetisov, Kafelnikov, Safin, Kabaeva, Zaitsev.

And what about you? Do you like sports? Speak about it according to the plan:

    What sport do you go in for?

    Where do you play sports?

    Are you good at it?

    How often do you go in for sport?

    Why do you like this sport?

    What is better- to play sports or to watch it?

Use: Book, 8, pp. 119-120, 125, 127, 128-129, 139,142, 147;

Билет 15 (1) Oxbridge The foundation of the great schools which were named Universities was everywhere throughout Europe a special mark of the new impulse that Christendom had got from the Crusades. A new desire for study sprang up in the West from its contact with the more cultured East. Oxford and Cambridge are the oldest universities in England. Both of these universities are very beautiful. They have some of the finest architecture in Britain. Some of their colleges, chapels and libraries are three, four and even five hundred years old, and are full of valuable books and precious paintings. Of the early history of Cambridge little is known, but enough remains to enable us to trace the early steps by which Oxford gained its intellectual glory. The history of Cambridge is believed to begin in 1209 when several hundred students and scholars arrived at the little town of Cambridge after having walked 60 miles from Oxford. According to the custom they joined themselves into "Universitas" or a society of people with common employment. Only later they came to be associated with scholarship.Cambridge won independence from the Town rule in 1500. Students were of different ages and came from everywhere. Gradually the idea of the College developed and in 1284 Peter-house, the oldest College in Cambridge was established. In 1440 King Henry VI founded King"s College, and other colleges fol­lowed. The first college of Oxford University was founded in 1249. At that time with the revival of classic studies many teachers became enemies of parliament, and the Church. The lectures of Vicarious on the Civil Law at Oxford were prohibited by the English king. Now the university of Oxford has thirty-five colleges and about thirteen thousand students. There were no women students at Oxford until 1878, when the first women"s college, Lady Margaret Hall, was up. Now, most colleges are open to men and women. Oxford is famous for its first-class education as well as its beautiful buildings. Many students want to study there. It is not easy to get a place at Oxford University to study for a degree. But outside the university there are many smaller private colleges which offer less difficult courses and where it is easy to enrol.

Билет 14 (3)

    Teens" problems are associated with generation problems

(problems of the young & adults). There are many reasons of it:

Билет 1 (3)

Travelling by... has some advantages and disadvantages...

    it"s fast and comfortable;

    there is no dust and dirt;

    you can book your tickets beforehand;

  • you must register at the airport;

    you can get air sick.

    you can see interesting places while travelling;

    modern trains have comfortable seats;

    there are also sleeping cars;

    it"s slower than a plane;

    there are many passengers.

  • it"s comfortable when it rains;

    you can relax and enjoy the views;

    you can listen to guide and learn interesting things about a place (city);

    the buses are stuffy;

    you can"t sleep in a bus;

    you can"t stop and enjoy the view.

Билет 2 (1)

Britain is only a small country, but every part is different. Scotland is a land of mountains, lakes and romantic castles. The winters are cold, with plenty of snow, but the summers are often warm and sunny. Deer live in the hills, and the rivers are full of salmon. Edinburgh, Scotland"s capital, is very beautiful. The heart of the city is the castle, where the kings of Scotland lived for centuries. Edinburgh has a busy cultural life. Every year, in August, the International Festival takes place. Musicians, actors and singers come from all over the world and thousands of visitors fill the city, In the evening, the opera house, the theatres and concert halls are full. In cafes and pubs, small groups sing, act and read poetry. The castle is at its best in Festival time. Every night there is a magnificent military «Tattoo». Highland soldiers wearing «kilts» play the bagpipes and march to the music. Tartans, the patterns of the kilts, have an interesting history. Since the fifteenth century, each Scottish family (or "clan") has worn its own tartan as a kind of badge. It was a useful way of recognising people, especially in times of war. Many tartans date only from the nineteenth century, but some of the old patterns still exist. «Dress» tartans, worn on special occasions, have light, bright colours. Hunting tartans are usually green, blue, or brown.

Wales is a country of high mountains and pretty valleys. But Wales has plenty of industry, too. There are many factories and coal mines there. The people of Wales are very musical. Every year they have a festival of Welsh music and poetry called an «Eisteddfod».

A hundred years ago the north of England was the industrial heart of the country. The old factories have gone now and the workers have to look for jobs in the new «high-tech» industries. The centre of England (the «Midlands») is also an important industrial area, especially near the huge cities of Coventry and Birmingham, the centre of car industry. The west of England is a rich farming country. It produces milk, cream, butter, cheese and apples. Northern Inland is beautiful too. In the warm, wet climate much of the land is farming.

Britain is an island and there is no place to be too far from the sea. Some of the coast, especially in the west, is wild and rocky, with small, sandy beaches, and romantic harbours.

Билет 14 (2)

The English language is now the most popular language in the world. It"s the second widespread tongue after Chinese. 456 mln of people speak English on the planet. It"s the language of business, traffic, politics, sports, new technologies, communication, etc.

Many students study English at schools & universities. I & my classmates also study it because we want to…(like…, it is…) / 5 ideas, Book-9, p. 156, table 1/.

English is not a very difficult language to learn but you must know how to make your studying useful. Many things can help you. / 4-5 ideas, Book-9,p. 156, table 3/. There are also different ways to learn English. You should…/ 5-6 ideas, Book-9,p. 156, table 2/

A good result of studying is a good student. A good language learner is a person who…/ 4-5 ideas, Book-9,p. 156, table4/.

Билет 14 (1)

A GREAT CHARACTER

Life is not always easy. Sometimes it presents serious problems that make people sad and cause despair. At such times it might be good to think about the example of Helen Keller, born in America in 1880. She never gave in.

There was nothing wrong with Helen when she was born. Her parents were very proud of their pretty baby. She was able to walk when she was one and could even say a few words. But one day she refused to eat and started crying. She had a high temperature and they had to call the doctor. When she recovered, it was clear that little Helen would never again be able to see or hear. Before Helen Keller was even two she was blind and deaf.

Her parents were very upset and at first decided to let her grow up untaught. But soon they understood that their pity could not help her, but could do her a lot of harm. They did their best to find a good teacher from the Institution for the Blind in Boston. It was a wonderful day for Helen Keller when Ann Sullivan came to their place. Ann by great effort and patience taught Helen the meaning of words.

When Ann arrived she was only 20, and Helen - 7. From the first day they became good friends. Helen turned out a very capable pupil: she quickly learned to communicate through sign language and later was good at reading, writing and typing in Braille. For fifty years they were good companions till 1936, when Ann died. It was due to the patience and skill of Ann Sullivan that Helen Keller developed into one of the most remarkable women of our time.

Miss Sullivan loved her pupil who was so quick to learn. She lived with Helen, played with her, and worked with her every hour of the day. By means of the hand language, Helen and her teacher were able to talk to each other. By this time she was also able to go on a vacation trip, to swim, to ride a pony, and to do many of the other things that any other child might do.

Helen was determined that she would learn to speak, too. At first she had difficulty with her speech, but Anne Sullivan understood what she was trying" to say. Helen practised speaking day after day until at last she developed a clear voice. Later she was able to speak before large crowds which came to hear her whenever she lectured.

When Helen Keller completed formal schooling she went on to college. She graduated from Radcliff with honours. One of Helen Roller"s professors was so pleased with the things that she wrote for her English classes that he suggested she write the story of her life. Helen did write «The Story of My Life» while she was in college. It was such a cheerful account of how this young girl was able to live a happy, useful life in spite of terrible difficulties. In her writings and lectures Helen Keller did everything possible to help and encourage those who were blind.

Билет 2 (2)

    Personal information

My name is… I was born in… on…

I am… I live in…

I go to… I am in the… form My favourite subjects are…

I think I look… I am… (good-looking, cute, tall, short)

I have… eyes (nose) My hair (face) is…

I love (enjoy, like)…ing I especially like…

I find it really interesting to… My favourite… is…

I also…After school I prefer…

My hobbies are… I am good at…

I have many (only one, few)… My best friend is…

He/she is very… Together we…

I have problems with… I am not good at…

I wish I were… I need help in…

I"d like to…I am going to…I will…

Билет 2 (3)

HOME PARTY WITH RELATIVES:

    It"s good to see all relatives at once;

    Relatives usually give good presents;

    Oh? It"s so boring! You can never have real fun with

HOME PARTY WITH FRIENDS:

    That"s great! We can do what we like;

    I think my flat is not big enough. Besides, the neighbours are mad about the noise we make.

    I like the idea. All sorts of music, a lot of dancing;

    Oh, no! It"s so crowded? Stuffy in there, a lot of drinking;

    You can"t choose the music you like;

    It can be too expensive.

Билет 13 (3)

I find this idea a little bit old-fashioned.

Do you know many students who are keen on poetry, especially among boys?

I like this idea. We can organize an evening where everyone will be welcomed to read her/his favourite poem

Besides, we can light the candles to make the atmosphere very romantic

A picture exhibition

I don"t really like this idea. It seems to me childish

It takes a lot of time first to collect the pictures then to place them on the wall.

I think everyone likes to draw since her/his childhood. So this idea might be supported by other students.

The idea is not bad, but many people should be involved; rehearsals, music, costumes will take a lot of time.

We could stage some extract from one of famous musicals. They are very popular now. I think everybody will like it.

I think we all are bored to death with school discos.

I am in favour of this idea. We could invite some pop group and dance to live music.

A photo competition

I am not sure that this idea will encourage our schoolmates.

A fresh idea. I am sure that everyone has got an album with exciting pictures that will be interesting to look at.

Билет 13 (2)

Health is a very important thing for all people. It"s necessary to take care of health. There are many ways to be healthy.

1). First you must think about your daily routines. You must…(spend a lot of time in the open air; not sleep too much/too little; eat regularly; not skip breakfast; exercise; do things in time);

2). Then you must give up bad habits (smoking, drinking alcohol, drugs) because…/ 5 arguments/;

3). You must also take care about the food you eat. Obesity is a serious problem. Eat more/less…(cut down…/ use…/ follow…);

4). Some foods can help you to be healthy. (3-4 examples);

5). Sports is also good for your health. Play…;

Билет 3 (1)

Contemporary American Society In the past fifty years American society changed much. Fifty years ago most Americans lived in small communities. They seldom moved from one place to another. And usually, knew their neighbors well. Life was so personal that people often joked about it. It was difficult to have privacy in a small community like that. Some people dreamed about moving to big cities, but most people were happy to live all their lives in the same place.

Now people often move from place to place. It is rare to find people who have lived all their lives in one community. Americans are used to leaving friends and making new friends.

The American family changed too. Until the 1960s divorce was uncommon. Between 1962 and 1981 the number of divorces increased. Americans are not likely to remain in a marriage that has problems. They are not forced by economic, social or religious pressure to stay married. Since 1960s the number of single-parent families increased.

Americans bring up their children to be independent. It is a part of American culture. Small children learn to do things on their own. They learn to take care of themselves, clean their rooms, help with the dishes and the laundry, spend time away from their parents in daycare, with a baby sitter or alone. Most teenagers try to find summer or after-school jobs, so that they can have their own money. Students usually work part-time and during summer vacations.

Young people get married later than they used to. Women usually get married at the age of 24, men - at the age of 26. Newly married couples often postpone having children, while they are establishing their careers.

Билет 3 (2)

What do you associate with Britain?

When I think of Britain I think about:

    the official name of Britain (….);

    the countries and their capitals;

    the biggest cities, lakes, rivers;

I also picture in my mind the British weather.

The British like to speak about it.

England with… Wales with…

Scotland… Ireland with…

Of course I think about the people of Britain.

I imagine them as…

…are fond of… …like talking about…

… live in… … are associated with…

…are known as… …like…

We must also say about London.

L. is a very…city.

It"s a centre of…

There are a lot of places to go & see:……

L. is also associated with…(double deckers, lollipop lady, policemen, red telephone boxes).

1.Book-7, pp. 227, 229-231, 240-241

Билет 13 (1)

It is difficult to generalize about American women. A "typical " American woman may be single. She may also be divorced or married. She may be a home-maker, a doctor, or a factory worker. They have one thing in common - their attitude about themselves and their role in the American life.

American women were always very independent The first colonists who came to New England were often young couples. The women were alone in a new, undeveloped country with their husbands. They worked with their husbands and children to establislish themselves in this new land. They felt free because they were in a new land without the influence of other members of society. Women became the supporters of the family. The children of these early Americans grew up with many examples of working women around them.

In the 20th century industrialized America the role of women was not so strong and dramatic as in the early days of the century. Some women were active outside the home; others were not. When American men went to war in the 1940s, women stepped into the man"s jobs as factory and business workers. Some women stayed in these positions after the war.

When men returned from the war and the post war "baby boom" began. Americans began to move to the suburbs. A new model of a traditional family developed and women were separated from men. Men usually went to the city to work and there was a strong division between work and home. Houses in the suburbs were far from each other, there were no stores or business. Women had to drive to buy food and to visit family and friends. The family was isolated from the outside world. At the same time life became easier for American homemakers because dishwashers, vacuum cleaners and frozen foods helped much to save time. With more time on their hands American women began to want to become more involved. American women are working now to reestablish their strong role in American life.

Билет 12 (3)

You and the student are discussing how to spend four hours you have before leaving for the airport. These are your ideas about each option:

photos and then show them to my family and friends;

You know, I"m fond of visiting museums;

I like the atmosphere there, it"s so relaxing;

I guess parks look the same almost everywhere.

I don"t think there is anything special about them.

What if the weather changes for the worse?

English weather is so unpredictable

    It sounds terrific! We may enjoy the sunny

weather and have a nice time there.

    It"s so nice to be in the open air for a change.

We have already visited so many museums.

1 don"t feel like eating.

I"d rather see more of the town than while the time away in a cafe.

I"m afraid I don"t have enough money for a cafe.

That"s a good idea. I"m tired and hungry.

We may try new foods.
- What about going to a tea shop? They are beautifully " decorated.

We could have delicious English tea there

Билет 3 (3)

Can a book be a good present? Arguments:

We learn many things from books. They help us in self-education.

We can solve our problems with the help of books.

They make our life richer. What else can people give as a present? On what occasion?

All the kids like toys very much. Babies like funny toys that make sounds and toy animals. Girls play with dolls, doll houses. Boys prefer toy cars, models, guns. Both boys and girls enjoy puzzles, blocks and board games.

a friend"s birthday

a religious ceremony

a meal at her friends"

a meal at her friends"

a house-warming party

getting a new job

buying a new house PRESENTS

a box of chocolates books records decorations for the house a photo album a CD computer games a video cassette baby toys stuffed animals religious books or objects hand-made gifts perfume

Билет 4 (1) THE SAILOR WHO WALKED ACROSS RUSSIA John Dundas Cochrane was born in 1786. He became a captain in the British navy when quite a young" man and fought in sea battles against the French during the Napoleonic wars. After Waterloo the navy did not need so many officers, and Cochrane found himself without a ship to command.

He wanted to lead an expedition to discover the source of the African river Niger, but his idea was rejected by the government. So, in February 1820, the captain decided to make a journey of his own -" on foot.

He walked from Paris to Berlin, through Poland to Lithuania, and on to Novgorod and Moscow. It was now late autumn.

From Moscow, Cochrane walked along the winter roads to Kazan, and then across the Urals to Tobolsk. Here, because of much snow and the vastness of the territory, the local governor gave him horses and a guide.

At last Cochrane reached Irkutsk and, after a short rest, went north.

After exploring the Kolyma area, on the East Siberia Sea, and making notes about what he had seen, the captain began the journey to Okhotsk.

In June 1821, Cochrane reached Okhotsk and from Okhotsk he went to Kamchatka by sea. He spent eleven months in Kamchatka, travelling and making notes... and falling in love with a Russian girl.

After their marriage Cochrane and his wife went back to England. They arrived in London in 1823.

In London, the captain wrote a book about his journey through Russia,

During his journey Cochrane met a lot of people who helped him and asked nothing in return. They were uneducated but they were kind and friendly. That is why he wrote in the end of his book: " I have received food from people who had almost nothing to eat... Those people who are called "uncivilized" are the most hospitable and friendly".

Билет 12 (2)

CULTURE OF THE YOUTH

    Culture (C) has many meanings. Usually we speak about 3 types of C.:

Elite C. includes painting, sculpture, literature, music.

Folk C. is the C. of everyday life, traditions & customs.

Popular C. is mass C. It gives people, especially young, standards of life.

    Many young people are influenced by popular C. They…

  • follow examples of TV, cinema, music;

    imitate their idols;

    are sports & music fans;

    visit stadiums& concert halls;

    follow their idols in tours;

    like disco(rock, jazz, pop, heavy metal…) music & dance;

    are fond of science fiction literature, love stories, detectives;

But some young people prefer…

Reading serious books;

    listening to serious music;

    going to theatres;

    working in the Internet etc.

Task: And what about you? What do you like?

    Beside 3 types of C. there is also the type, very different & unusual-subculture .

Sub-C. is the culture of people who disagree with society. There are many S-C.: ….

They are different in their clothes, appearance, music styles, hobbies. But they all have common features. They want…

Task: Choose 1 S-C. & speak about it. Use the plan:

  1. opinions, views;

    your opinion about it.

    Book 10/11, pp. 70-72, 75, 84-89;

    Reader, pp. 31-32,34;

Билет 12 (1) Wimbledon-as Unusual Club

People all over the world know Wimbledon as the centre of lawn tennis. But most people do not know that it was famous for another game before tennis was invented. Wimbledon is now a part of Greater London. In 1874 it was a country village, but it had a railway station and it was the home of the All-England Croquet Club. The Club had been there since 1864. A lot of people played croquet in England at that time and enjoyed it, but the national championships did not attract many spectators. So the Club had very little money, and the members were looking for ways of getting some. This new game of lawn tennis seems to have plenty of action, and people like watching it", they thought. "Shall we allow people to play lawn tennis on some of our beautiful croquet lawns? In 1875 they changed the name of the Club to the "All-England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club", and that is the name that you will still find in the telephone book. Two years later, in 1877, Wimbledon held the first world lawn tennis championship (men"s sin­gles). The winner was S.W. Gore, a Londoner. There were 22 players and 200 spectators, each paid one shilling. Those who watched were dressed in the very latest fashion-the men in hard top hats and long coats, and the ladies in dresses that reached to the ground! Wimbledon grew. There was some surprise and doubt, of course, when the Club allowed women to play in the first women"s singles championship in 1884, But the ladies played well-even in long skirts that hid their legs and feet.

The Wimbledon championships begin on the Monday nearest to June 22, at a time when England often has its finest weather. It is not only because the people like to go there. When the weather is good, it is a very pleasant place to spend an afternoon. The grass is fresh and green, the players wear beautiful white clothes, the spectators are dressed in the latest fashion, there may be members of the royal family among them, and there are cool drinks in the open-air cafes next to the tennis courts.

Millions of people watch the championships on television.

Билет 4 (2)

The way we learn about the world

There are a lot of sources of information: libraries, museums, history clubs, zoos, galleries, traveling & media(TV, newspapers & magazines, radio, Internet).

Historical club

Museums & galleries

Libraries

make projects the stories of people, books, textbooks,

discover secrets cities, musical instruments, leaflets which help

of the past machines etc. to discover& create;

make historical cassettes which

outings fine collections of arts, help to imagine;

learn about the clothes, pictures, photos, encyclopedias about

history of peoples costumes etc. everything.

Z Zoos and national

learn more about discover new famous people find interesting

plants, birds & places; events, politics, information for

animals; study languages; teenager"s lessons;

feed & take care make friends; problems, the rest know up-to-

of them; relax; of the world; date facts;

do scientific it also> find people

experiments; teaches people discover new with the same

art & culture. things; interests;

educate; explore practise English ;

new ideas; play educational

pop& rock stars,

school, parents.

Билет 4 (3)

It is like a typewriter and address book for me and it is also used for checking my spelling.

Besides I can go on the Internet and discover everything about anything, it"s a brilliant source of information.

I can design my own website and I get loads of information for school.

Besides some websites are packed with quizzes, games and competitions, it"s all you need for hours of fun on your computer.

You can play and leam on it. It is absolutely essential.

discover new things

explore new ideas

leam more about...

escape from everyday life problems books can tell us a lot about... lives of famous people politics

ancient times the arts and fashion " teenagers" problems gardening latest discoveries plants and animals interesting thing"s the rest of the world cookery

Билет 11 (3)

Contain sensational stories

Билет 11 (2)

1.The systems of education in Russia & Britain are different but they have some common features.Both Russian & British systems of education have several levels:

Видео – подробно о написании сочинения

Разделите текст на смысловые абзацы в соответствии с предложенным в задании планом.

  1. В первом абзаце сформулируйте проблему, которую вы будете обсуждать, однако не повторяйте тему сочинения слово в слово. Представьте, что ваш читатель не знает, о чем пойдет речь, и попытайтесь объяснить ему проблему другими словами.
  2. Выделите положительные и отрицательные стороны проблемы, подумайте о разумных аргументах, в поддержку обеих точек зрения. Помните, что вы должны выразить не только свою точку зрения, но и противоположную. Также не забудьте объяснить, почему вы не согласны с другой точкой зрения. Старайтесь соблюдать баланс между абзацами.
  3. Используйте слова-связки, чтобы помочь читателю проследить за логикой ваших рассуждений. Помните, что вводные слова выделяются запятыми.
  4. В последнем абзаце сделайте обобщающий вывод по данной проблеме. Вы можете также окончательно сформулировать свое мнение или предложить пути решения данной проблемы.

Структура по частям

  • Заголовок — название эссе, которое отражает тему повествования.
  • Введение — 2-4 коротких предложения, которые раскрывают тему эссе.
  • Основная часть — 2-3 абзаца, которые описывают суть сочинения. Максимально полно и грамотно раскройте тему, приведите доводы и аргументируйте их.
  • Заключение — 2-4 предложения, которые подводят итог. Общий вывод по теме.

В основной части сочинения все абзацы начинаются с вводного предложения (Topic Sentence) – введения. Далее мысль Topic Sentence развивается и подтверждается.

Объем сочинения должен составлять 200-250 слов. При этом артикль – это тоже слово, поэтому не слишком увлекайтесь с развитием идей, постарайтесь удержаться в заданных рамках.

Клише для сочинений

Выражения мнения:

  • I agree/ disagree
  • In my opinion, … / From my point of view, … / As far as I am concerned, …
  • I believe that…/ It seems to me that…
  • I am in favour of… / I am against the idea of…
  • According to…
  • Some people say that…
  • It is said/believed that…
  • There is no doubt that…
  • It cannot be denied that…
  • It goes without saying that…
  • We must admit that…

Представление аргументов:

  • The main argument against/in favour is…
  • First of all, I would like to consider…
  • The first thing I would like to consider is…
  • To begin with, …/ To start with, …
  • Despite the fact that…/ In spite of the fact that…
  • On the one hand, … /On the other hand, …
  • Besides,…/ In addition,…
  • What is more, …/ Moreover, …/ More than that, …
  • Finally, …
  • However, … / …, though
  • …although…
  • Nevertheless,…

Логические связки:

  • for this reason
  • therefore/that is why
  • thus sth happened because of/as a result of/owing to/due to/as a consequence of

Примеры:

  • For example
  • For instance
  • Such as
  • Like


Заключение
:

  • To sum up, …
  • To conclude, I would argue that…
  • On this basis, I can conclude that…
  • In conclusion, I would like to stress that…
  • All in all, I believe that…